Copyright by the editor, Hal Morris, Secaucus, NJ 1997. Permission is granted to copy, but not for sale, nor in multiple copies, except by permission.
Jacksonian Miscellanies is a weekly* email newsletter presenting short** documents from the United States' Jacksonian Era, which you can receive it for free by sending to email@example.com a message with
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I owe my readers an apology, first for being two weeks behind, and second for postponing the follow-through for the 9/9 issue; i.e. the debate in the Senate (as reported in Niles Register) over the withdrawal of funds from the Bank of the United States. I feel that debate deserves a good bit of commentary, at least in the nature of who the speakers were -- their positions on issues and the states they represented -- Niles Register does no more than give their last names. Having just returned from 10 days vacation, I'm opting for something less strenuous for this and the next issue, so the debate will be carried in the 9/30 issue -- to be assembled this weekend, I hope.
The excerpts below come from Annals of North America, being A Concise Account of the Important Events in the United States, the British Provinces, and Mexico, From their Discovery down to the Present Time, [1492-1876] showing The Steps in their Political, Religious, Social, Legislative, and Industrial Progress by Edward Howland ... (Hartford: J.B. Burr, 1877). A large portion of this will soon be added to my web page, as a useful timeline, or the beginnings of one.
I like this old book, in part, for telling about the beginnings of newspapers, and when "the first flour" was exported from Rochester, NY.
Please let me know if such an item seems appropriate, or not, if once is enough, or if you'd like to see more of it posted.
1814.-THE Recorder appeared in Chillicothe, Ohio.
It was published by John Andrews, and was the first religious
newspaper, being "devoted to Theology, Literature, and all matters
of local and national interest."
1814-15.-THE Illinois Intelligencer appeared at
This was the first newspaper in the state.
1814.-THE first flour was exported from Rochester, New
York, and the third mill was built there.
1815, JANUARY 1.-The British were
repulsed in a second attack upon General
Jackson's line of defence at New Orleans.
1815, JANUARY 8.-The British made a third attack upon General Jackson's position, and were repulsed.
Jackson had been reinforced with levies from Kentucky.
Packenham in person led the attack, and was killed. The watchword of the
British was "Booty and Beauty." The troops were chiefly drawn
from Wellington's peninsular army. In this engagement the British lost
two thousand men, while Jackson's loss in the entire campaign was only
three hundred and thirtythree. The British withdrew to their original
landingplace and reembarked.
1815, FEBRUARY 11.-The Bri tish sloopofwar Favorite
arrived at New York, with an English and an American messenger bearing
a treaty of peace, which the English government had already ratified.
The news, despatched by express, reached Boston in thirtytwo
hours. As the news spread, a general feeling of satisfaction expressed
itself in rejoicing, without caring to inquire what were the terms of the
1810, FEBRUARY 12.-Fort Bowyer was again attacked by the
whole British force, and Captain Lawrence was forced to surrender.
The British retiring from New Orleans captured it. Fort
Morgan now occupies the site of the old fort.
1815, FEBRUARY 17.-The treaty was ratified and promulgated.
By its provisions all conquered territory was to be mutually
restored, and three commissions were to be appointed: the first to settle
the title to the islands of Passarnaquoddy Bay; the second to settle the
northeastern boundary as far as the St. Lawrence; and the third to, run
the line through the St. Lawrence and the lakes to the Lake of the Woods.
In case of disagreement, the point in dispute was to be referred to some
friendly power. Hostilities on land were to terminate with the ratification
of the treaty, and on sea in certain specified times, according to the
distance, the longest time being four months. The treaty provided against
the carrying away by the British of "any negroes or other property."
Both parties agreed to use their best endeavors for the suppression of
1815 FEBRUARY 17. -- Congress proposed a loan of eighteen
million and four hundred thousand dollars, and an issue of treasury notes
to the amount of twenty-five million dollars.
A portion of these, issued in sums under a hundred dollars,
payable to bearer, and to serve as a currency. Those over one hundred
dollars were to bear interest at five and two fifths per cent., making
a cent and a half a day on each one hundred dollars. Both were receivable
for all public dues. and were transferable at option, those bearing interest
in six per cent. bonds and those without in seven per cent. bonds.
1815, FEBRUARY 20. -- The Constitution, off Lisbon, captured
two British sloops-of-war, the Cyane and the Levant.
The engagement took place by moonlight. The loss to the
Constitution was only three killed and twelve wounded. Meeting subsequently
with a fleet of British vessels, she escaped in a fog, but lost the Levant,
which was recaptured.
1815, FEBRUARY 21.-The British, after issuing a proclamation
of martial law, withdrew from the coast of Georgia.
1815, FEBRUARY 21.-Congress authorized the funding of
the non-interest-paying treasury notes in circulation.
The interest upon the loan was seven per cent. Three millions
two hundred and sixty-eight thousand nine hundred and forty-nine dollars
were invested in bonds at par.
1815, MARCH 3.-Congress authorized a loan of twelve millions
The rate of interest was six per cent. The amount issued
was nine million seven hundred and forty-five thousand seven hundred and
forty-five dollars. The loan was made for the purpose of funding the interest-paying
treasury notes, and the subscription price was from ninety to par in treasury
1815.-THE colony of Harmonists moved from Pennsylvania
and settled in Posey County, Indiana.
1815.-ABOUT this time the use of the small plough, for
the cultivation of corn, was introduced among the French settlers in Illinois.
Mr. Charles L. Flint says their ploughs, "from the
time of their occupation, in 1682, down to the War of 1812, were made of
wood, with a small point of iron fastened upon the wood by strips of raw-hide.
The beams rested upon an axle and small wooden wheels. They were drawn
by oxen yoked by the horns, the yokes being straight and fastened to the
horns by raw-leather straps, a pole extending back from the yoke the axle.
These ploughs were large and clumsy.... They used carts that had not a
particle of iron about them."
1815, MARCH 23.-The Hornet, off the Cape of Good Hope,
captured the Penguin, and destroyed her.
1815, MARCH 31.-General Jackson was sentenced by the court
to a fine of one thousand dollars for contempt of court.
He had arrested a member of the legislature named Louallier,
for an article he had written while the city was under martial law. Judge
Hall having granted a writ of habeas corpus in the prisoner's favor,
Jackson arrested the judge and sent him out of the city. When martial law
was repealed, the judge, returning, summoned him for contempt of court,
and fined him. Jackson gave his check for the fine, and the amount was
reimbursed him by subscription.
1815,MARCH-The non-intercourse and non-importation acts
were repealed, as well as all acts creating discriminating duties on foreign
The acts to take effect with only reciprocating nations.
1 815, JUNE 30.-The Peacock, in the Straits of Funda,
captured an armed British vessel.
The next day the vessel was given up. The number of British
vessels captured on the sea and the lakes by privateers and national vessels
was said to be 1750. The official account of American vessels captured
or destroyed by the royal navy was 42 national vessels, 233 privateers,
and 1437 merchant ships, making a total of 1683. The British privateers
did not make many captures.
1815, JUNE.-Decatur, with a fleet, appeared off Algiers,
and the Dey signed a treaty on his quarter-deck.
The Dey had declared war against the United States, captured
an American vessel, and made slaves of the crew. Decatur was sent with
the fleet. Near Gibraltar he captured the largest frigate of the Algerine
navy. By the treaty, the Dey surrendered all prisoners, paid an indemnity,
and agreed to renounce all claim to American tribute, and not make slaves
of his war prisoners. Proceeding to Tunis and Tripoli, Decatur obtained
indemnity for American vessels captured during the war, under the guns
of their forts, by British cruisers. In part-payment, ho took from Tripoli
eight Danes and two Italians held as slaves.
1815,JULY.-The commissioners at Ghent made a commercial
convention with Great Britain, to last four years, and stipulation, for
absolute reciprocity by abolishing, in direct trade, all discriminations.
1815, SEPTEMBER 1.-A council was held at Detroit, and
the hatchet buried by the tribes represented.
Thesc were the Senecas, Delawares, Shawanees, Wyandots,
Pottawatomies of Lake Michigan, Ottawas, and Chippeways, with the Winnebagoes
and Sauks. Other treaties were made with the Pottawatomies of the Illinois,
the Piankeshaws, Osagos, Iowas, Kansas, Foxes, Kickapoos, and bands of
the Sioux. The posts of Prairie du Chien and Michilimackinac wero reoccupied.
1815.-A BRIDEWELL, or house of correction, was started
Persons liable to be committed for a term not exceeding
seven years were by the act described "as disorderly and idle people,
who notoriously misspend their time, to the neglect of their own and family's
support, and those who are convicted of any clergyable or lesser criminal
1815.-JOSE MARIA MORELOS was executed.
He was a priest, and had for several years successfully
maintained an insurrection against the Spanish domination of Mexico.
1815.-THE North American Review was started in Boston
Massachusetts, under the editorship of William Tudor.
In 1817 it passed into the control of a club of Boston
gentlemen, who made Jared Sparks chief editor; then Edward Channing; and
in 1819, Edward Everett assumed the post.
1815 - THE water-works at Fairmount, for supplying Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania, with water, were completed.
They were begun in 1812. As far back as 1764, after the
yellow fever in Philadelphia, Benjamin Franklin had advocated the necessity
of supplying the city with water, and in his will, June 23, 1789, recommended
the city should make an appropriation for that purpose. In 1797 water was
brought from Spring Mill Creek, and from the Schuylkill by steampower,
and stored in tanks ready for use; but in 1812 more efficient works were
1815, SEPTEMBER 30. - The total debt of
the United States amounted to one hundred and nineteen million six hundred
The estimated cost of the war was at this date eighty
million five hundred thousand dollars.
1816,JANUARY 3.-The Recorder appeared in Boston,
This was the second religious newspaper published. From
the different claims which have been made for its establishment, it appears
that Nathaniel Willis first conceived the idea of such a paper, and printed
the Recorder, of which Sidney Edwards Morse was the first
1816, FEBRUARY. - Congress passed a tariff bill.
It had been introduced by Mr. Lowndes, of South Carolina,
with the view of encouraging manufactures.
1816, MARCH 1.-Congress passed an act limiting importation
by foreign vessels to the produce of their respective countries.
Its provisions were to apply to only such nations as had
placed a similar obstruction upon commerce. The coasting trade was also
limited to American built vessels owned by Aniericans. All coasting and
fishing vessels were required, under penalties, to have three fourths of
their crews Americans.
1816, MARCH 1.-Congress repealed
all such parts of existing laws imposing duties as were inconsistent with
the provisions of a treaty prepared by a convention held in London, England,
on the third of the previous July.
At this convention it was agreed to equalize the duties
on tonnage and imports. The treaty was reciprocal with regard to the British
territories in Europe and the East Indies, but did not secure for the United
States equal privileges in Brittish possessions in America. This treaty
was renewed in 1818, October 20, for ten years, and in 1827, on August
1816.-THE first steam paper-mill was erected at Pittsburgh.
1816.-THE first steamboat built at Cincinnati was launched.
She was named the Vesta.
18l6, MARCH 3. - Congress passed
an act forbidding the fitting out within the jurisdiction of the United
States of any vessel to cruise against any power with which the
United States were at peace.
A fine of ten thousand dollars and imprisonment not to
exceed ten years were the penalties for being engaged in fitting out any
such vessel. Spain had protested against the fitting out of vessels to
sail under the flags of her revolted South American provinces, and to assist
Texas and Mexico, which had also rebelled.
1816 APRIL 19. - Congress chartered a national bank.
Its capital was thirty-five millions; government to subscribe
for seven millions in five per cent. bonds, and the rest to be subscribed
by the public; seven millions in specie, and the rest in government stock.
The bank to issue no notes under five dollars, and forbidden to suspend
under twelve per cent. penalty. Its directors were elected by the stockholders.
The bank was organized on October 28, fifteen of the directors being Democrats,
and ten Federalists. Its charter was to run twenty-one years, and it was
to pay for it one million five hundred thousand dollars in three installments,
at two, three, and four years. It was to be the depositary of the public
money, which it should transfer without charge. It was to establish a place
of deposit and discount in Washington, and a similar one in any state where
two thousand shares were held on application of the Legislature. The shares
were one hundred Dollars.
1816, APRIL 25. --Congress appropriated one million dollars annually
to the increase of the navy.
1816, APRIL 30 -Congress voted that Specie payments ought to be resumed
February 20, 1817 and that the government should then accept only specie,
or its equivalent "treasury notes, notes of the Bank of the United
States, or in notes of banks payable and paid on demand in specie."
The banks refused to resume specie payments before July,
1816, APRIL,- An act was passed by the legislature of New Hampshire
changing the name of Dartmouth College to Dartmouth University, and
changing the board of trustees.
The old board refused to submit; the governor brought
the subject before the legislature, who passed an act fining any one who
should oppose the new board, who thus obtained possession of the buildings
and records. The matter was carried to the supreme court, which finally
decided that the original charter of the college was a contract, and its
modification without the consent of the trustees was unconstitutional.
The college was therefore reinstated in possession.
1816, APRIL.-Congress enacted that the pay of members should be fifteen
hundred dollars a year.
There was great objection made to it. The legislatures
of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Georgia, and Kentucky passed resolutions
expressive of their objection to it as extravagant. The next session it
was repealed, being allowed to stand for the session, and the future being
left to the next Congress.
1816, MAY.-The steamboat Enterprise
ascended the Mississippi from New Orleans to Louisville.
She was commanded by Captain Henry M. Shreve, who was
chiefly instrumental in breaking down the monopoly claimed by Fulton and
Livingston of the steam navigation of the rivers. He carried the case up
until he got a decision from the Supreme Court.
1816, SEPTEMBER-Indiana formed a constitution, and under
it Jonathan Jennings was chosen the first governor.
Authority to frame a constitution had been given by Congress.
The constitution gave the right of suffrage to all male citizens resident
in the state one year. It recognized the freedom of the press.
1816, SEPTEMBER 24.-The Cherokees, by a treaty, limited
themselves on the south side of the Tennessee to the parallel of Huntsville.
In the fall, at two treaties, the Chickasaws and Choctaws
relinquished all claim to territory east of the Tombigbee, except the valley
of Bear Creek. The consideration for these cessions was, with the Cherokees,
$6000 cash, and an annuity for ten years of $6000. They also received $5000
cash for relinquishing all claim to any part of South Carolina. The Chickasaws
received $4500, an annuity for ten years of $12,000, and gifts to some
of the chiefs. The Choctaws $10,000 cash, and an annuity for twenty years
1816, SEPTEMBER 28.-An expedition from New Orleans, with
a force from Camp Crawford, under Colonel Clinch, destroyed the fort on
The fort had been built by the British, and, with its
armament, given by them, at the close of the war, to their Indian and negro
allies. It was claimed that it was an asylum for runaway negroes. The magazine
was exploded by red-hot shot, and some three hundred and fifty persons
1816, NOVEMBER.-The United States Bank was organized in
Philadelphia, with branches at Boston, New York, and Baltimore.
Other branches were soon opened at Portsmouth, Providence,
Middletown Connecticut, Washington, Richmond, Norfolk, Charleston, Savannah,
New Orleans, Lexington, and Cincinnati, and soon after at Louisville, Chillicothe.
Pittsburg, Fayetteville, and Augusta.
1816, NOVEMBER 25.- A bank of savings was formed in New
It was formed at a public meeting held by the Society
for the Prevention of Pauperism, and was incorporated in March, 1819.
1816, DECEMBER 2.-The Saving Fund Society was organized
in Philadelphia, and opened the business of a savings bank.
1816, DECEMBER 13.-The Provident Institution for Savings
was incorporated at Boston, Massachusetts.
1816.-THE Columbian Institute for the promotion of Arts
and Sciences was instituted at Washington, D.C.
At the expiration of its charter, in 1830, it was merged
in the National Institute.
1816, DECEMBER.-The American Colonization Society, for
colonizing the colored people on the Africun coast, was established
Rev. Robert Finley was active in the work. The plan had
been urged by Jefferson as early as 1777, and the legislature of Virginia
had advocated it in 1801. Bushrod Washington was the first president of
the society. His immediate successors were Charles Carroll, James Madison,
and Henry Clay.
1816.-POTTERY WORKS were started
at Jersey City, and some porcelain ware was made.
The works now manufacture chiefly the cream-colored ware,
for which the clay is obtained near Amboy.
1816, DECEMBER.-Congress appropriated ten millions to
the sinking fund.
President: James Madison
George Clinton, of New York, 1809, died 1812.
Elbridge Gerry, of Massachusetts, March 4, 1813; died November 23, 1813.
Secretaries of State:
Robert Smith, of Maryland, March 6, 1819.
James Monroe, of Virginia, April 2, 1811.
Secretaries of Treasury:
Albert Gallatin, of Pennsylvania, continued in office.
George W. Campbell, of Tennessee, Feb. 9, 1814.
Alexander J. Dallas, of Tennessee, Oct. 6. 1814.
Secretaries of War:
William Eustice, of Massachusetts, March 7, 1809.
John Armstrong, of New York, January 13, 1813.
James Monroe, of Virginia, September 27, 1814.
W.H. Crawford, of Georgia, March 3, 1815.
Secretaries of Navy:
Paul Hamilton, of South Carolina, March 7, 1809.
William Jones, of Pennsylvania, Jan. 12, 1813.
Benj. W. Crowninshield, Mass., Dec. 17, 1814.
Gideon Granger, of Connectecut, continued in office.
Return J. Meigs, of Ohio, March 17, 1814.
Caesar Rodney, of Delaware, continued in office.
William Pinkney, of Maryland, Dec. 11, 1811.
Richard Rush, of Pennsylvania, February 10, 1814.
Speakers of the House of Representatives:
Joseph B. Varnum, of Mass., Eleventh Congress, 1809.
Henry Clay, of Kentucky, Twelfth Congress, 1811.
Henry Clay, of Kentucky, Thirteenth Congress, 1813.
Langdon Cheves, of S. Carolina, Thirteenth Cong., 1814.
Henry Clay, of Kentucky, Fourteenth Congress, 1815.
1817, JANUARY.-The government resumed specie payments.
It paid its obligations in Boston, Massachusetts, in coin.
1814.-THE President was authorized to procure for
the capitol four large pictures of Revolutionary scenes by John Trumbull.
An appropriation had been made for rebuilding the capitol,
enclosing the grounds about it and making them ornamental. Trumbull had
served in the army of the Revolution. and made a series of portraits of
the chief actors in it. The four pictures he painted for this order are
now in the rotunda of the capitol.
1817, FEBRUARY 10.-The Delaware Society for Promoting American Manufactures was established at Willmington.
1817, MARCH 1. - Congress passed an act giving to the people of the
western portion territory of Mississippi the right to organize a state
By another act the territory was divided, the eastern
portion being erected into the territory of Alabama, of which William W.
Bibb was appointed governor. The constitution formed for the state of Mississippi
gave the right of suffrage to all white male adult residents of the state.
A property qualification was requisite to hold the office of governor,
or to be a member of thc legislature. The legislature was denied any power
to pass laws for the emancipation of slaves without the consent of their
owners, or paying an equivalent for them; nor laws to prevent immigrants,
bringing with them persons deened slaves by any of the states, as long
as similar persons were held in slavery by the laws of the state. Grand
juries were dispensed with in the trial of slaves, and petit juries in
all but capital eases.
1817.-THE Massachusetts Peace Society memorialized
Congress, suggesting the formation of a congress of nations for the purpose
of settling, national disputes by arbitration
1817, MARCH 3.-Congress appointed John Quincy Adams commissioner to
examine and report on the subject of Weights and measures in the United
States, and also as to the desirableness of adopting the French system,
or some similar one.
During the years 1819 and l820, Adams had the standards
employed in the various custom-houses examined, and, in a table accompanying
his report, presented in 1821, showed the discrepancies that existed in
the different states. He reported unfavorably to the French system, but
recommended a more exact conformity with the English system.
1817, APRIL -- the legislature of New York passed
an act for the abolition of slavery in the state.
It was to take effect July 4, 1827. It also passed an
act abolishing imprisonment for debts less than twenty-five dollars.
1817. - MONTGOMERY, on the Alabama River, was laid out.
It became the capital of the state in 1846, when the government
was removed there from Tuscaloosa.
1817. - EVANSVILLE, Indiana, was laid out by General Robert Evans, James
W. Jones, and Hugh McGeary, and named in honor of the first.
It is a large manufacturing city on the Ohio River, and
has a rapidly increasing commerce. Coal and iron abound in the neighborhood.
1817, APRIL 15.--The New York Legislature created a fund for the construction
of the Erie, Champlain, and Hudson Canal.
Ground was first broken at Rome on the 4th of July, and
it was completed on the 26th of October, 1825.
1817, APRIL 15.-The first American asylum for the
deaf and dumb was opened at Hartford, Connecticut, with Thomas H. Gallaudet
Mr. Gallaudet had spent two years in Europe, the expense
being borne by wealthy men of Hartford, studying under the Abbe Sicard
at Paris his system of teaching mutes, and brought back with him, as assistant,
M. Laurent Le Clerc, a mute, one of the abbe's best teachers. The institution
had a grant of $5000 from the state and in 1819 Congress gave it the grant
of a township of land in Alabama, which produced a fund of $300,000, the
income from which is used in defraying the current expenses of the Asylum.
The New York institution was started in 1818; that of
Pennsylvania in 1820.
1817.-THIS year a revival in the cause of education
began, and the grade of instruction in the public schools has since steadily
Horace Mann, of Massachusetts; Henry Barnard, of Connecticut;
the publication of the "American Journal of Education," begun
in 1826; the improved text-books; the founding of normal schools,--all
have worked for the same end: the increased efficiency of the common schools.
1817.-THE Hartford Times appeared in Hartford,
It was established by Alfred E. Burr, and is now under
the direction of his sons Alfred E. and Franklin L. Burr. It is Democratic.
1817, MAY 13.-The Pennsylvania Society for the Promotion of Public Economy
was formed at Philadelphia.
1817.-THE American Society for the Encouragement of American Manufactures
was formed in New York.
1817.-THE Maryland Economical Association was organized at Baltimore,
1817.-THE legislature of New York appropriated twenty thousand dollars,
to be divided among the county agricultural societies, for the promotion
of agriculture and family domestic manufactures.
1817, JULY.-The Gazette appeared in Mobile, Alabama.
1817.-- A COMPANY of Germans, known as Separatists, landed and settled
at Zoar, in Tuscarora county, Ohio.
They had bought the land, which was uncleared, and in
1819 formed themselves into a community. In 1832 they adopted a constitution,
and were incorporated by the legislature. They have about three hundred
1817, AUGUST.-An agent was sent in the frigate Congress
to establish commercial relations with the northern part of St. Domingo.
Christophe was in command as king of the independent government
which the revolted colored population had established. He expressed a desire
to establish friendly relations. The agent had only a simple certificate
of his appointment. The United States had not recognized the independence
of Hayti, and hesitated to do so.
1817.-THE commissioners were sent to South America to
ascertain and report the real condition of affairs there.
The republics had revolted from Spanish rule, and claimed
to have established their independence.
1817, NOVEMBER 30.-The Indians attacked a boat on the
Appalachicola carrying supplies to Fort Scott on the Flint River, and
killed all who were on it except six men and one woman.
The boat contained about forty men, with a number of women
and children. The attack was made in retaliation for one that had been
made by General Gaines from Fort Scott upon the Indian village of Fowltown,
a few miles below the fort, in order to enforce a demand he had made upon
the Indians for the surrender of some murderers who had taken refuge in
their settlement. Jackson was sent, on reception of the news, to take command
in person, and given authority to call on the militia from Tennessee.
1817, DECEMBER 23.-The internal taxes were repealed.
1817.-THE legislature of Kentucky chartered thirty-nine
There were already in the state a state bank with fourteen