ALTHOUGH I have very distinct recollections of the existence of the churches here referred to, and of the removal or destruction of some of them, I am unable to give the exact periods, etc., in all cases, and in consequence of the lapse of time (seventy years), deficiency in records, and the change of ministers, etc., I have had much difficulty in presenting this record, and if there are errors, they are not with me, but with the authorities I have referred to.

The churches and houses of worship therefore in existence at this period which I recollect, and which have been either removed by the advance of population, sold, or burned, etc., are:

Episcopal: "Trinity," 1696, Broadway, facing Wall Street; 1776, burned; 1788, rebuilt and furnished with a chime of bells; 1839, taken down; rebuilt and opened May 21, 1846. "Eglise du St. Esprit," Pine near Nassau Street; 1704, French Protestant; 1741, repaired; 1780, destroyed; 1794,, rebuilt; 1803,, Protestant Episcopal; 1834, sold, then built corner Leonard and Church streets; now in Twenty­second Street, between Fifth and Sixth avenues. "St. George's," 1752, organized; 1811,, in Beekman Street; 1814,, burned; 1816, rebuilt; 1845, in Rutherford Place. "St. Mark's," 1791, Second Avenue and Tenth Street; 1799, rebuilt; 1829, consecrated.

"Christ," 1794, 49 Ann, near Nassau Street; 1823, Anthony (Worth) Street, on site of Theatre near Broadway 1854, West Eighteenth Street; 1859, at Fifth Avenue and Thirty­fifth Street; 1891 burned; now on Boulevard at Seventy­first Street. At the time this church moved to Anthony Street, a part of the congregation objected to the move and obtaining permission of the old church, organized a parish and named it "Christ Church in Ann Street," but it lived for a brief period and in 1826 the building was sold to Roman Catholics, as below; 1834, burned. "St. Thomas's," 1823, corner of Houston Street and Broadway; 1870, corner Fifth Avenue and Fifty­third Street. "All Saints," 1825, chapel on Grand, corner Columbia Street; 1828, church on Henry, corner of Scammel Street. "St. Philip's" (colored), 1805, building in William Street; then Cliff, between Ferry and Beekman streets; then Rose, near Pearl Street, site obliterated by opening of South William, Duane, and Chambers streets; 1818, organized in accordance with Protestant Episcopal Church; then 31 Collect (Centre) Street, between Anthony and Leonard streets; 1821, burned; 1822, rebuilt; 1856, sold; 1857, No. 200 Mulberry, near Bleecker Street and 1886, West Twenty­fifth Street, near Seventh Avenue. "St. Stephen's," 1806, corner Broome and First (Chrystie) streets, then consolidated with the "Advent" at Forty­sixth Street, near Sixth Avenue. "Grace," 1808, corner Broadway and Rector Street; 1846, Broadway and Tenth Street. " St. Michael's," 1807, Bloomingdale (Harsenville); 1810, at Sixty­ninth Street, between Third and Fourth avenues; 1869, Seventy­second Street, between Lexington and Third avenues, and 1884, corner Madison Avenue and Seventy­first Street; 1811 , "St. James's" was added to "St. Michael's," and they were placed under one charge; 1853, burned; 1891, Ninetyninth Street and Amsterdam Avenue. "Zion," 1810,, corner of Mott and Cross (Park) streets, formerly Lutheran; built in 1801; 1815,, burned; 1819, reconstructed; 1853, sold to Roman Catholics, and 1854, corner Madison Avenue and Thirty­eighth Street, now consolidated with "St. Timothy," 332 West Fiftyseventh Street; 1891,, sold to Dutch Reformed. "St. Mary's," 1820, Manhattanville was added, 1823; and in 1825, "St. Ann's" at Fort Washington was also added, now extinct. "St. Luke's," 1822, Hudson, near Christopher Street, now a chapel; 1892, corner Convent Avenue and One Hundred and Forty­first Street.

The Episcopal Charity School, "Trinity," was founded

In 1704.

Many Episcopal churches at this time were without chancels proper. There was an altar at the rear, with railings around it, where children were catechised. confirmation was administered, and the Communion'` received In front was the pulpit, surmounting a column, in front of which was the reading desk, which effectually hid the altar from the view of the congregation.

In the lower end there were two or three pews assigned to colored persons, and the doors were lettered "For B men."

In 1793 one hundred thousand pounds was received by the Corporation of Trinity Church, from the estate of John Leake,, deceased, and from that time the interest of this sum has been expended in the purchase of bread to be distributed amongst the poor of the parish.

The donation is termed " The Leake Dole of bread,"

Roman Catholic "St. Peter's," formed, 1783; opened 1786, corner of Barclay and Church streets; 1838, rebuilt. "St. Patrick's," 1815, corder of Mott and Prince streets; later lengthened. "St. Mary's," 1826, formerly Seventh Presbyterian, in Sheriff, between Broome and Delancey streets, first Roman Catholic bell in the city; 1831, burned by a burglar; 1833, Grand, corner of Ridge Street. "Christ," purchased from Episcopalians 1827, 49 Ann, near Nassau Street; 1834, became unsafe for occupation and taken down; 1835, James Street.

Reformed Dutch: "Harlem," 1686, now "First," on One Hundred and Twenty­third Street and Third Avenue.

Reformed Protestant Dutch: 1824, "King" Street, near MacDougal Street, seceded and called itself "The True Reformed Dutch Church," and continued as such until it connected itself with a western secession known as "The Christian Reformed Church"; removed to Perry Street. "Broome Street," 1824, corner of Broome and Greene streets; 1860, to 307 West Thirty­fourth Street near Eighth Avenue; 1895, sold to the Collegiate Church. "Houston Street," 1825, corner of Greene; 1854, Seventh Avenue, near Thirteenth Street; 1859, disbanded and building sold. "Manhattan," 1826, Third Street near Avenue D; 1872, sold. "Duane Street" (colored), 1826, schoolroom near Hudson Street; 1828, disbanded. "Orchard Street," 1826, near Broome Street; 1833, sold.

Congregational: 1804, "Warren Street," near Broadway; 1809, Elizabeth, between Walker and Hester streets, as Presbyterian; 1814,, sold to "Asbury," colored Methodists, burned. "Independent," 1818, rear of 488 Pearl Street; 1820, Vandewater Street; 1821, to Congregational. "Broadway," 1817, corner of Anthony Street, dissolved. "Providence Chapel," 1819, Hall, corner of Chapel (West Broadway) and Provost (Franklin) Street; 1823, 49 Thompson, near Broome Street. "Broome Street," 1817, Rose Street; 1820, Broome Street; 1822, dissolved. "Welsh," 1825, Mulberry Street, then Broome, near Bowery; 1833, Presbyterian. "Third," 1826, Third Street near Avenue D; 1827, sold to "Asbury," colored Methodists.

German Reformed: "First " (Calvinistic), organized 1758, 32 Nassau, between John Street and Maiden Lane; 1765, rebuilt; 1832, sold; 1823, 64­66 Forsyth Street, sold; 1834, decreed by the Vice­Chancellor to the Lutherans; 1844, decision reversed by Chancellor; 1844, decision reversed again by Court of Errors; 1861, Norfolk, between Stanton and Rivington streets. "Greenwich Street," 1803, Herring, corner Amos and Charles streets; 1826, sold to Presbyterians; and 1827, removed to Waverly Place near Grove Street; 1861, Forty­sixth Street, disbanded and sold to Episcopalians. "Bloomingdale" (Harsenville); 1805, Broadway, near Sixty­eighth Street; 1814, rebuilt; 1832, burned; now Boulevard, corner of Sixty­eighth Street. "Northwest," 1808, Franklin Street, between Church and Chapel (West Broadway); 1854, West Twenty­third Street; 1871,Madison Avenue and Fifty­eighth Street. "Market Street," 1810, corner of Henry Street; 1869, dissolved. "Vandewater Street," 1820, formerly Congregational.

Lutheran: " First," 1660, in Fort Amsterdam. "Trinity," 1671 log church southwest corner of Broadway and Rector Street; 1741, rebuilt; burned in the great fire in 1776; 1805, ground sold to Grace Episcopal Church; 1744, congregation divided, part to an old brewery in Skinner Road (Cliff Street); 1767, reunited as "Christ" or "Old Swamp Church," corner of Frankfort and William streets (see page l00), sold to colored Presbyterians; 1822, removed to "St. Matthew's" (Evangelical) Lutheran, Walker Street, between Broadway and Elm Street, now corner of Broome and Elizabeth streets; 1826, sold. "St. James," 1827, Orange Street, between Hester and Grand streets, building donated by Peter Lorillard; abandoned, 1848; then Mulberry, near Grand Street; 1857, Fifteenth Street, opposite Stuyvesant Square, now (1895) southwest corner of Madison Avenue and Seventy­third Street. "Zion," 1797, corner of Mott and Cross (Park) streets; 1801, consecrated; 1810, changed to "Zion Episcopal."

The trustees of the Lutheran "Old Swamp Church" in its early days were offered a plot of ground of about six acres in Canal Street near Broadway, a part of the Lispenard Meadows; and the Board passed the following resolution: "That it was inexpedient to accept the gift, inasmuch as the land was not worth fencing in."

Collegiate Reformed Dutch Church: Organized, 1628; chartered, 1696; site of first church, 1633, on Pearl Street (now No. 33); 1642, the "Church in the Fort," known as "St. Nicholas' Church." "South Church," 1693, Garden Alley (Garden Street), Exchange Place;**

** In Garden Street Exchange Place) there was a free school organized in 1663, and in 1784 the Church built one opposite to it, which was removed to Duane Street and in 1835 to Canal, corner of Elm Street;

1847, on Fourth Street; 1861, Twenty-ninth Street and Seventh Avenue; now (1892) corner of Seventy­seventh Street and West End Avenue, and known as the Collegiate School."

1766, enlarged; 1807, rebuilt; 1812, independent of the Collegiate Church; 1835, burned in the great fire, congregation divided, part building in Washington Square and part in Murray Street; then corner of Fifth Avenue and Twenty-first Street. "Middle," 1729, Nassau, between Cedar and Liberty Streets ; 1790, renewed; 1845, rented to United States for Post­office; 1861, sold; 1882, taken down. "North," 1769, on William, between Fulton and Ann Streets; 1875, site leased and building removed; 1839, Lafayette Place and Fourth Street; 1887, site leased and building taken down; 1854, Fifth Avenue and Twenty-ninth Street.

Presbyterian: "First." City Hall, 1716 Wall Street, near Broadway; 1748, enlarged; 1810 rebuilt; 1834, burned and rebuilt; 1844, sold; 1846, Fifth Avenue, between Eleventh and Twelfth streets. "Scotch," organized, 1756; Cedar Street No. 33, 1847, corner of Crosby and Grand streets; 1853, on West Fourteenth Street, corner Sixth Avenue; now (1895), Ninety­fifth and Ninety­sixth streets, and Central Park West. " Brick," *

* In 1811, On the occurrence of the great fire in Chatham Street, a flake from it rested on the steeple of this church, which becoming inflamed, a sailor from the crowd of spectators below ascended the steeple, extinguished the fire, and, when he descended, declined to give his name The plot on which this church was located consisted of about three-fourths of an acre, sold in 1854 for one hundred and seventy­five thousand dollars, and in one year after for three hundred and fifty thousand.

1768, Chatham (Park Row) Street; 1854, sold; 1858, corner of Fifth Avenue and Thirty­seventh Street. "First Associate Presbyterian," 1787, "Nassau Street," near Maiden Lane; 1803, rebuilt; 1824, sold to Baptists, 1853, "Grand Street," corner Grand and Mercer streets; 1867, "Fourth," Thirty­fourth Street, between Sixth and Seventh avenues; 1893, Ninety­first Street and West End Avenue. "Rutgers Street," 1797, established; 1798, corner of Henry Street; 1842,rebuilt; 1870, "Madison Avenue" (by James Lenox), corner of Twenty­ninth Street, united with it as "Rutgers Church," built and sold in 1888; now corner of Boulevard and Seventy­third Street. "Pearl Street" (Associate), 1797, No. 550 Magazine (Pearl), between Elm Street and Broadway; 1837, burned and rebuilt. "Chambers Street," 1801, opposite New York Institution, near Broadway; 1818,, rebuilt; 1826, congregation divided, one part Sixth Street (Waverly Place); 1835, Chambers Street, sold and removed to Prince, corner of Marion Street; 1849, sold and rebuilt in Twelfth Street near Sixth Avenue. "Cedar Street" (Associate), 1808, between William and Nassau streets; 1834, sold; 1836, corner of Duane and Church streets, as "Duane Street Church"; 1852, corner of Nineteenth Street; and 1875, corner of Fifty­fifth Street and Fifth Avenue. "Canal Street" (Irish), 1809, Orange, near Grand Street; 1825, Canal and Greene streets. "Spring Street" (Old), 1811, near Varick Street; 1825, removed to and known as "Laight Street," corner of Varick Street; 1843, dissolved, and sold to Baptists. "Cedar Street," near Broadway, 1812; then (Scotch Associate), No. 37 Murray Street, opposite Columbia College; 1841, taken down and rebuilt in Eighth Street, opposite Lafayette Place; vacated and sold. "Seventh Church," 1818, organized in house, Grand, near Lewis Street; 1819, Sheriff, between Broome and Delancey streets; 1826, sold to Roman Catholics; 1827, corner of Broome and Ridge streets; 1831, burned and rebuilt. "Allen Street," 1820, Bancker (Madison) Street; 1823, removed to Allen, corner of Grand Street; 1832, rebuilt; now Forsyth Street. "Eighth," organized 1819; 1821, Christopher, near Asylum Street; 1841, sold to St. Matthew's; 1842, disbanded. "Vandewater Street," 1821, near Frankfort Street; 1823, withdrawn from the Presbytery; 1825, revived; 1825, dissolved. "Central," 1822, Broome, near Elm Street, now West Fifty­seventh Street, near Seventh Avenue. "Village," 1822, near North River and Le Roy Street, then as Tabernacle Church; 1830, disbanded. "Bowery," 1822; 1861, sold and dissolved. "Provost Street," 1823, near Chapel Street (West Broadway); 1825, sold and dissolved. "Bleecker Street," 1825, near Broadway, then Fourth Avenue, corner Twenty­second Street. "Spring Street," Scotch (new), 1825, Spring, near Varick Street. "Welsh" (Calvinistic), 1833, Broome Street, near Bowery, now 225 East Thirteenth Street. "First" (colored), 1824, Elm, near Canal Street; 1825, sold to Jews' synagogue (Benai Jeshurun); 1830, purchased the Swamp Church, corner Frankfort and William streets.

Methodist Episcopal: 1767, Rigging loft in Horse and Cart Street ( 120 William), between John and Fair (Fulton) streets; 1768­70, "Wesley Chapel" or "John Street," between Nassau and William streets (the first Methodist church in America); 1817­18, rebuilt; 1841, rebuilt smaller. 1789, "Forsyth Street" ("Second Street" and "Bowery") in Second (Forsyth), near Division Street; 1833, rebuilt; 1873, altered and cut down. 1797, "Duane Street" ("North Church," "North River Church," and "Hudson Church"), Barley (Duane), between Hudson and Greenwich streets; abandoned and sold; "Duane Church," its successor, 1863, Hudson, near Spring Street. "Seventh Street" ("Two­Mile Stone," "Bowery Village"), a school house and room; 1795, Nicholas William, between Seventh and Eighth streets and Second and Third avenues; 1817, church built beside it with part of material of first church in John Street; 1830, removed; 1836­37, Seventh Street, between Second and Third avenues. 1810, "Bedford Street" ("Greenwich Village"), corner of Bedford and Morton streets; 1830, enlarged; 1840, new building. 1810­11 "Allen Street" ("Fourth Street,") between Delancey and Rivington streets; 1836­37, rebuilt; 1888,, removed to Rivington between Ludlow and Orchard streets, and named "Allen Street Memorial"; original church sold to and refitted by a Jewish synagogue. 1819, "Willett Street," occupied a mission house leased of Presbyterians, Broome, near Lewis Street; 1826, Willett Street. 1820, "The Methodist Society" (Stillwellite), school room in Chrystie Street, then church in . Chrystie, between Pump (Canal) and Hester streets; eventually dissolved. 1824, a second church in "Sullivan Street" (Stillwellite), near Spring Street; 1830, joined the Methodist Protestant Church; 1839, sold and rebuilt in same street, near Bleecker; 1842, joined the Methodist Episcopal Church as "Sullivan Street"; 1860, "Washington Square," Fourth Street between Sixth Avenue and Washington Square.

African Methodist Episcopal: "Zion," 1796, occupied a house in Cross (Park), between Mulberry and Orange (Baxter) streets; 1800, organized, then at corner of Church and Leonard streets; 1820, rebuilt; 1839, burned; 1840, rebuilt; 1864, removed to Bleecker, corner Tenth Street; 1813, a branch formed in Elizabeth near Pump (Canal) Street; 1820, rejoined; 1822, again separated. "Asbury," divided and known as "Asbury Church"; 1820, united with "Zion"; 1823, Elizabeth Street church burned; then "Broadway Tabernacle," then hall corner of Elizabeth and Grand streets, then in hall on Howard Street, then Fourth Street, then Third Street near Avenue D. 1820, "Mott Street" near Walker Street; then burned; then Elizabeth Street; 1835, Second Street.

Unitarian: "First Congregational," 1821, Chambers, near Church Street; 1843, sold; now "All Souls," corner Twentieth Street and Fourth Avenue. "Church of Divine Unity," 1845, Broadway, between Prince and Spring streets. "Church of the Messiah," a colony from the First Congregational, 1826, Prince, corner Mercer Street; 1837, burned; 1839, Broadway, near Waverly Place, then 1865 sold; 1867. Park Avenue and East Thirty­fourth Street.

Baptist: 1724, a church organized, then a house on Golden Hill (Gold and John streets); 1732, dissolved and church sold. "First," 1760, 29 Gold, between Fulton and John streets; 1802, rebuilt; 1840, sold and taken down; 1841, Broome, corner of Elizabeth Street. "Second," 1770, Rose Street; 1791, then divided as "The Bethel Church," and the Rose Street party as the "The Baptist Church in Fayette (1821, Oliver) Street." 1806, the Rose Street congregation built in Broome, near the Bowery; 1820, Delancey, corner of Chrystie Street; 1830, divided, one party going to Mott, then to Chrystie Street; the other retained the church in Velancey Street, which was abandoned, and ultimately sold for a stable; and the congregation removed to "The Sixth Street." "Oliver Street Church," 1795, corner of Henry Street; 1800, rebuilt; 1819, rebuilt; 1843, burned and rebuilt. "Scotch Baptist," 1803, building in Greenwich Street; divided and part termed themselves the "Ebenezer Baptists"; 1806, Anthony, near Chapel Street, sold; then in York Street, and known as "York Street Church"; 1825, hall, corner of Broadway and Reade Street; then hall in Canal, near Vandam Street, then Houston Street, and then Broadway, near Bleecker Street. "Welsh Bethlehem," 1807, 68 Mott Street, between Bayard and Pump (Canal) Street; 1813, dissolved. "North Church," 1809, Vandam near Varick Street; 1818,, name of "Beriah " added; 1819, burned; 1820, rebuilt on Macdougal, near Vandam Street. "Mulberry Street," near Chatham, 1809; organized as " James Street Church, 1838; dissolved 1838; then as the "Tabernacle Baptist Church," 1853, a part of congregation purchased Laight Street Church, corner of Varick, of the Presbyterians. ''Zoar " Church, 1811, Rose Street; 1812, dissolved. "South Baptist," organized 1822, in German church in Nassau Street, near Maiden Lane 1724, Nassau, between Fulton and John streets, built by Presbyterians in 1803. "Union Church," 1823, Bowery, opposite Spring Street; 1831, burned then Mott above Spring Street; 1834, Stanton Street, near Forsyth, and known as " Stanton Street Church." "Provost (Franklin) Street," near Chapel Street (West Broadway); 1825, bought by Communion Baptists; 1832, leased, and 1838, sold to Reformed Presbyterians. "Ebenezer Baptist," organized 1825; 1838, Avenue A, near Second Street. " Abyssinian " (colored), 1809, Ebenezer, or York Street, Church Building, 44 Anthony, near Chapel Street, sold at auction and regained.

Friends' Meeting Houses: "Liberty Street," 1703, Crown (Little Greene) Street, now Liberty Place; 1794, rebuilt on Liberty Street; 1802, rebuilt; 1826, sold to Grant Thorburn, the seedsman. 1775, "Pearl Street," near Franklin Square; 1824, taken down; 1826, removed to "Rose Street," near Pearl; then, 1860, East Sixteenth Street and Rutherford Place. "Hester Street," 1819, corner Elizabeth Street; 1861, sold to New York Gas Light Co., and, 1884, transferred to Consolidated Gas Co. "United Christian Friends," or "The Society of Christian Friends," Prince, near Orange Street.

Universalist: "First," 1796, Vandewater Street, near Frankfort; 1803, purchased from the Lutherans, No. 488 Magazine (Pearl) near Cross Street; sold to "Zion" (colored) Presbyterian, prior to 1810, corner Augustus (City Hall Place) and Duane streets; 1837, rented to Welsh Baptists, then to a hall in Forsyth Street, then the church sold to Roman Catholics and society dissolved. "Second," 1824, Prince, corner of Marion Street; 1830, sold to Presbyterians.

Mariners': 1819, Roosevelt Street, No. 76; then, 1854, Catherine Street, No. 46.

New Jerusalem: "Swedenborgian," Broadway, near Rector Street; 1816,, Broadway near Duane Street, then, 1821, in Pearl, near Augustus (City Hall Place) Street; 1845 sold to Zion Baptists; then in various places and then Eighth Street, near Fourth Avenue; now, 1859, East Thirty­fifth Street, near Park Avenue.

Moravian : "First," 1739, organized; 1751, 108 Fair (Fulton) Street; 1752, dedicated; 1829, rebuilt; 1843, sold; 1845, southwest corner Houston and Mott streets; 1865, sold; 1869, corner of Lexington Avenue and Thirtieth Street, purchased from the Episcopalians (which had been erected by the Baptists, in about 1825). "United Christian Brethren," Third, near Lewis Street.

Jews' Synagogue: Prior to 1682 "Shearith Israel," 19 Mill (South William) Street; 1706, removed; 1729, rebuilt; 1818, rebuilt; 1834, Crosby, near Spring Street; 1860, Nineteenth Street, near Fifth Avenue. "Benai Jeshurun," 1824, Greene Street.

It was reported that the "Holy Light" in this synagogue had by some accident or unavoidable occurrence been extinguished, and as a consequence it became necessary to obtain a like light from the nearest synagogue, and one was received from Philadelphia.

This synagogue possesses four graveyards, the continued retention of which, in view of the readiness with which some Christian churches have sold theirs, has evoked much comment. The "First" (Beth Haim) 1656, corner of Bancker and Fayette (Madison and Oliver) streets; 1729, more ground adjoining was purchased, some of which was subsequently sold; a "Second," corner of Gold and Jacob streets, but not used; a "Third," on Sixth Avenue, near Eleventh Street, but partly used; and "Fourth," on Twenty­first Street, near Sixth Avenue. When the Common Council prohibited interment within the city limits, 1852, removed to Cypress Hills, L.I.

While some Episcopal, Dutch Reformed, Presbyterian, and Unitarian churches have been removed from the lower part of the city, their sites sold, and new edifices constructed uptown-apparently with greater regard to the prominence of the location than to the field of their usefulness-the Roman Catholic Church, with that zeal and singleness of purpose in its advancement which has ever distinguished it, has not deviated from its mission here, by the blandishment of a fashionable congregation. It has not only retained existing churches, but has obtained others, in locations where a dense population and the prospect of useful work seem to have been the guide. "St George's" and the "Brick Church" in Beekman Street; the "Cedar Street" in Duane, and the Dutch and Presbyterian churches in Murray Street, were removed more to meet the wishes of a portion of their members than to the advantage of their churches; the latter, removed to head of Lafayette Place, was converted to a theatre.

The "Church of the Messiah" was bought by A. T. Stewart and converted to a theatre, also the "Amity Street" Baptist, converted to a stable. " Pearl Street " Meeting House was bought by Messrs. Appleton, and the Broome Street, corner of Greene, by the Merchants' Express Co.

In connection with the Episcopal churches, of which I can write from observation, it may not be amiss to refer to some of the clergymen. Of Bishops Hobart, Onderdonk, and Wainwright, I have treated in other chapters. The popular clergymen of the time in this Church were Drs. James Milnor of St. George's, Beekman Street, and Schroeder of Trinity Parish, who, with Onderdonk, Berrian, and Bishop Hobart, alternated between Trinity Church, St. Paul's ancl St. John's chapels, and Dr. Wainwright occupied the pulpit of Grace Church. Subsequent to this Dr. Schroeder resigned and assumed the pastorate of a church in the upper part of the city; his popularity ceased, and his position was filled by Dr. Higbee. It is related that, when Dr. Milnor died, the city newspapers displayed their mourning by "turning their column rules."

The service in these churches was very different from that observed by nearly all of the present time (1895). Thus: the ritual of the Common Prayer Book was uniformly and strictly adhered to at all times, whether Communion was to be administered or not, which Sacrament was administered only on the first Sunday in the month, and at Christmas and Easter; and, excepting during Lent, the church doors were never opened for other than burial service from their closing Sunday evening to the next Sunday morning, and in religious, moral, social position, and in integrity, I fail to recognize any improvement in the people at this time.