WALTER BOWNE, 1832 and 1833,
1832 AND 1833, AND GIDEON LEE, 1833,
1832. IN this year the following streets and places were
widened, viz.: Ann, between Nassau and William; Cedar, between William
and Pearl; Exchange Place at William; Spruce, between Nassau and Gold;
William, on east side, from Wall to Pine; Hanover at Exchange Place; and
Cross, Anthony, and Little Water streets. Sixth Street was changed to Waverly
Place. Jefferson Market, at intersection of Sixth Avenue and Greenwich
Lane, was opened. There was annexed to it a firealarm bell tower and
a steampump, which drew and forced water through a main to the elevated
cistern or reservoir, as it was termed, in East Thirteenth Street near
Union Square was enlarged, and as the required area invaded
the property of the owners abutting in Broadway and Seventeenth Street
and the Bowery (now Fourth Avenue), many of them protested against the
measure with the usual vehemence and shortsightedness of people regarding
their view of their own interests in similar cases.
1 was present on an occasion when an old and well known
sailor captain protested against the enlargement, as he was an old man
and had settled down for life and did not wish to be disturbed. He said
that it would be hard to lose his property-that is, to have the city take
about five per cent. of it and make the balance in a few years worth ten
times the cost of the whole, which it did.
The Hall of Records, in the Park, originally built for
a jail (see page 26), which in 1830 had been ordered to be converted for
the accommodation of several of the city departments, was so far finished
in this year that it was used as a cholera hospital, and, subsequently,
by the Register, Comptroller, Street Commissioner, and Surrogate.
Some prices for real estate, obtained at sales by public
auction during this winter, are here noted: The corner of Wall and Broad
streets, 30 feet on Wall Street by 16 feet 8 inches on Broad, $17,750;
southwest corner of Broadway and Park Place, about 25 by 122, $37,000.
February 23 ground was broken for construction of the
New York and Harlem Railroad, and in the course of the year this company
ran its first car from Prince to Fourteenth Street. These cars were like
stagecoaches, hung on leather, with several compartments and side
doors, the driver sitting above like a coachman, and putting on the brake
with his feet. My readers should remember that at this time railways on
important lines, as from Schenectady to Saratoga and the short cut across
the DelawareMaryland peninsula, on the route to Washington, were operated
Mordecai M. Noah, who had edited and published The
Advocate from 1813, then at 73 Pine Street, commenced the publication
in 1825 of the National Advocate, at 45 Wall Street, but, being
enjoined by Henry Eckford and others, he changed the title to Noah's
National Advocate; being again enjoined, he changed it to the New
York Enquirer, at 10 William Street, and, in 1829, James Watson Webb
purchased it, merged it with the Morning Courier published in 1827,
and established the New York Courier and Enquirer at 16 Merchants'
Exchange, with M. M. Noah, James Lawson, James Gordon Bennett, Prosper
M. Wetmore, and James G. Brooks as editors. Later Bennett was transferred
to Washington as reporter of Congressional proceedings.
May 4 the outer walls of the stores of Phelps & Peck
in Gold Street, corner of Fulton, at about 6 P. M., fell out, and eight
persons, including the bookkeeper, were killed and five injured.
May 21 Washington Irving arrived in New York, after an
absence of seventeen years in foreign parts, and on May 30 a public dinner
was given to him at the City Hotel, which was attended by a very large
and distinguished company.
June 8 a public meeting of merchants was held to endorse
an appeal to Congress to modify the tariff laws; but, in consequence of
the presence and violent action of the manufacturers and others opposed
to any modification, the assemblage was dispersed.
This was "cholera year." During the spring the
public were alarmed by reported prevalence of the disease in Europe. June
15, from Albany via the dayboat, we learned of the existence
of the dreaded cholera in Quebec, brought across the Atlantic by immigrants,
and appearing in a virulent form. The Common Council appointed two physicians,
Drs. Rhinelander and DeKay, to proceed forthwith to Quebec and report their
views as to the means to be adopted to alleviate the scourge so soon as
it appeared here. They proceeded and soon returned, and among their remedial
preventive recommendations, one cited brandy and water and the other portwine.
It was for a long while a standard and oft recurring joke with those who
availed themselves, in the manner of such refreshment, of every opportunity
that was presented to repel the dreaded cholera, announcing their preference
for "Dr. Rhinelander " (brandy) or "Dr. DeKay " (portwine).
Mayor Bowne issued a proclamation forbidding the arrival
here of all conveyances with persons afflicted with cholera. In the churches
prayers were offered; but on June 26 the cholera appeared in New York.
It was in virulent form. The Board of Health was required by duty to visit
the Staten Island quarantine, and within a fortnight from the time of their
visit all of them save one (Alderman Hall) were dead of the epidemic. A
coroner's inquest was held in the case of a man found dead in the street
from cholera. This was late in the week, and by the next Monday nine of
the twenty persons concerned in the inquest were dead. A special medical
council was appointed, and five large public hospitals were organized,
besides establishing a special station in each ward.
Nevertheless, the city manifested a degree of calmness
and selfcontrol, in actual presence of the disorder, that was somewhat
remarkable. Business proceeded without noteworthy interruptions, and the
streets wore their usual animated aspect. The situation was serious and
grave-even awful-but there was no wild terror. Yet the disease raged until
October 31, and caused 3515 deaths.
In the middle of July the famous Ravels appeared first
in America at the Park Theatre, and instantly gained a popularity almost
unrivalled in our amusements, which lasted for more than thirty years.
After being at the Park and the "Bowery," they were seen at Niblo's
for many successive seasons. Gabriel Ravel's farewell benefit was at Palmo's
Opera House, late in 1847, and soon after the principal members of the
troupe went abroad, but, at the opening of Niblo's new theatre,
in 1849, several of them appeared, and in 1851 Gabriel himself returned
with undiminished powers. In 185758 they were at Niblo's for three
hundred nights. The first engagement of them at the Park, in this year
of 1832, lasted but a fortnight, being negatived by the cholera.
September 3 arrived Charles Kemble and his daughter, Frances
Anne, so long and well known in this country as Fanny Kemble Butler. On
September 17 and 18 they made their first appearances at the Park Theatre,
Kemble on the first evening in Hamlet, his daughter on the I8th
as Bianca in Milman's "Fazio." The receipts for the first
ten nights of the Kembles' performances averaged twelve hundred dollars,
and the total for the engagement of sixty nights was fiftysix thousand
dollars. They attracted great attention, not only at the theatre, but in
society also, for they were received into some of the best houses. Miss
Kemble, in particular, was veritably triumphant. The publication of her
journal, however, in 1835, caused a considerable revulsion of feeling among
some of those who had shown her the greatest courtesy, for she had set
down therein, with great frankness, her opinions of the dress, manners,
and habits of her hosts- the opinions of a young girl in a new country,
not intrinsically valuable and certainly illadvised as to publication.
The passage of a steamboat hence to Providence having
been made in fourteen hours and twentynine minutes, it was heralded
as an exceptional performance.
October 31. A notable event was the consecration of four
bishops (Hopkins, Smith, McIlvaine, and Doane) in St. Paul's Chapel. The
occasion excited great interest; it is now, 1895, commemorated on one of
the bronze doors (the South) of Trinity Church.
Early in November T. D. Rice made his Ethiopian debut
in his character of Jim Crow, which became famous. Negro delineations
had been given before (as at the Chatham Garden), but Rice may be regarded
as in some degree the founder.
In December the Camden and Amboy Railroad was opened complete
(steamboat to South Amboy and thence by rail), and the time was exultingly
announced as five and a half hours from New York to Philadelphia.
The writer suggested to his former employer, James P.
Allaire, the steamengine manufacturer, that, as work was light, it
would be well to keep all his good men and build a tugboat, which he might
employ profitably if he could not sell her. To which he replied: "Why,
Charles, there are three now!" This was considered conclusive; three
boats, how could they be supported? At the present time (1895) there are
592 documented at this port, besides an unknown number from outside our
Mr. Whitlock established a third line of packets hence
to Havre. The first street paved in Harlem was One Hundred and Twentyninth
Street in this year, paved and flagged, from Third to Eighth Avenue. There
were no other paved streets in New York north of Clinton Place and Greenwich
Avenue at this time.
Alexander Welsh, or "Sandie," as he was universally
called, opened a restaurant under the Museum, at the corner of Broadway
and Ann Street, and named it the Terrapin Lunch. He was very popular, and
his Lunch became one of the favorite resorts of the period. His motto was,
Dum vivimus vivamus He was a worthy competitor of Windust.
There were exhibited in the Rotunda, Chambers Street,
pictures of Adam and Eve, and as they were represented in a seminude
condition, and the public had not been educated up to the point of considering
such representation as within the requirements of propriety, much censure
was lavished upon the exhibition, and as a result it was largely attended,
and finally accepted by some, and submitted to by others as permissible.
Charles Cox, a tailor from London at 114 William Street,
subsequently Nassau, then at 5 Wall and finally Astor House, as Cox &
Knock, had published an advertisement of an exceptionally absurd character,
setting forth his lachrymose condition after his arrival here, and his
now jubilant position. The precise language I have forgotten, but it was
of such an unusual form that an English writer who was travelling here
reproduced it on his return, in his travels in America, and vauntingly
cited it as an illustration of the peculiar advertisements of Yankee tradesmen.
William Harrington, a butcher of Central Market, without
any training, fought and signally defeated an English pugilist near Philadelphia.
The interest shown in this fight among the butchers and Bowery Boys, of
which number "Bill" Harrington had been an acknowledged representative
and leader, was very great, and when the result of it became known here,
flags were hoisted on the markets and slaughterhouses.
The Bowery Boy of that period was so distinctive a class
in dress and conversation, that a description of him is well worthy of
notice. He was not an idler and corner lounger, but mostly an apprentice,
generally to a butcher, and he " ran with a machine." He was
but little seen in the day, being engaged at his employment; but in the
evenings, other than Saturdays (when the markets remained open all day
and evening), and on Sundays and holidays, he appeared in propria persona,
a very different character; his dress, a high beaver hat, with the
nap divided and brushed in opposite directions, the hair on the back of
his head clipped close, while in front the temple locks were curled and
greased (hence, the wellknown term of " soap locks " to
the wearer of them), a smooth face, a gaudy silk neckcloth, black frockcoat,
full pantaloons, turned up at the bottom over heavy boots designed for
service in slaughterhouses and at fires; and when thus equipped, with his
girl hanging on his arm, it would have been very injudicious to offer him
any obstruction or to utter an offensive remark.
When he advised one of his confreres to attack
anti beat a person, or defend himself, he would exclaim "Lam him"
(Sam, Jim, or Jake, as the name might be). The orthography I am not responsible
for, as, in the absence of any vocabulary, I give the word phonographically;
and strange as the expression may seem, there is authority for it, as Walter
Scott, in his "Peveril of the Peak," uses it thus: "Lambe
them, lads; lambe them!" *
* A cant phrase of the time derived from the fate of Dr. Lambe, an astrologer and quack, who was knocked on the head in Charles I's time.
Colloquially the Bowery Boy was referred to as Moze,
and his "best girl" as Lize.
1833. January I appeared the first number of the Knickerbocker
Magazine, under the editorial control of Charles F. Hoffman, a periodical
which continued to hold the field, mainly under the late Lewis Gaylord
Clark, until a date beyond the scope of these reminiscences. The New York
Evangelist was founded in this year.
In this year the New York and Harlem Railroad extended
its route to Murray Hill.
Provost Street, which ran from Chapel Street to the river,
was changed to Franklin Street. Asylum Street, which had been opened in
1832, to Cornelia, from Christopher, was opened from Sixth to Eighth Avenue
to Fourth Street; and in November, North Street, which was east of the
Bowery,was changed to Houston Street; Pine, from Broadway to William, was
widened; Wooster was extended to Fourteenth Street, and Barrow from Asylum
Street to Sixth Avenue.
Jacob S. Platt purchased sufficient property between Gold
and Pearl streets to open a street and erect stores fronting thereon. Hence
arose the name Platt Street.
It was about this year that the first block, or Belgian,
pavement was laid in a street of this city or country. The location, selected
in view of the heavy travel over it, was in the Bowery between Bayard and
Walker (Pump) streets. The streets previous to this, and for many years
after, were paved with what are professionally known as cobblestones; and
it was not until about this year, with the exception of the instance cited,
that block stones were introduced, and then but sparingly; Broadway being
first paved with Russ block, which ultimately proved a failure and was
removed for Belgian.
The Greenwich Savings Bank was opened at 12 Carmine Street.
In April a subscription was completed for building the
Marine Pavilion at Rockaway, as an elegant place of summer resort. Some
seventy gentlemen subscribed five hundred dollars each; the list including
such names as Prime, Ray, King, Hone, Cruger, Howland, Suffern, Coster,
Hoyt, Schermerhorn, Crosby, Whitney, Newbold, Gihon, Parish, Thorne, Grinnell,
Suydam, Kissam, Heckscher, Cutting, Livingston, Stuyvesant, etc., but notwithstanding
these names, and the expectations of success, this resort, though established
according to the plan and being a delightful place, never prospered. New
Yorkers of fashion, including most of the subscribers, preferred to "go
farther and fare worse."
The City Hotel was much damaged by fire.
April 30 the stables of Kipp & Brown, proprietors
of a line of stages to Wall Street, in Hudson Street, corner of Hammond,
were burned, and a great number of horses and of new stages were destroyed.
June 3 died Oliver Wolcott, Secretary of the Treasury
under Washington, afterward a merchant of New York, and President, first
of the Merchants' Bank, then of the Bank of America. After declining business
he removed to Connecticut, of which State he was some time Governor, and
then returned to New York.
June 29 died Colonel Nicholas Fish, much regretted, an
officer of distinction in the Revolutionary War, and a highly esteemed
In the summer President Jackson visited the city at the
invitation of the Common Council. He was received by it at Amboy, and escorted
to the city in the steamboat North America, to Castle Garden. The
number of people on the bridge was so great that one span of it fell, and
many people were thrown into the water. I was at the point of rupture,
and went with the bridge, but escaped uninjured.
July 3 Aaron Burr married the widow of Stephen Jumel,
and subsequently occupied her fine old house (the Roger Morris home, built
in 1758) that still stands untouched on the height overlooking Harlem River,
just at the edge of the Croton Aqueduct, at about One Hundred and Sixtyfirst
Street (see page 278).
August 1, Sailors' Snug Harbor, on Staten Island, was
opened, the cornerstone having been laid in October, 1831.
At the end of August Tyrone Power made his first appearance
in America, at the Park Theatre. Power certainly eclipsed all actors, earlier
or later, as a delineator of Irish characters. He was here again in 1836
and 1839, and sailed for England on March 21, 1841, in the illfated
President, which never was heard of afterward.
September 3, The Sun, the first onecent paper,
edited by Benjamin H. Day, began publication, and was sold by the first
newsboy. It did not give editorials or reports of stock sales.
In January, Horace Greeley, in partnership with H. D.
Shephard and Francis V. Story, had published and issued a daily paper,
The Morning Post, price one cent, which lingered and survived for
a period of three weeks.
September 4 a deep impression was made upon our public
by the first performances at the Park of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Wood, who
began a season of English opera. "Cinderella" was given on the
opening night. Mr. Wood was a competent performer, and his wife had, added
to great native talent, the power derived from long study, experience,
and native beauty. They were here again in 183536, and 184041.
During the second visit they were illaffected by an unhappy stage
difficulty, which, however, was forgotten on their later appearance.
October 1, lotteries in the State were abolished by an
Act of the Legislature.
In this year Stephen Holt built the hotel on Fulton, corner
of Pearl and Water streets, to which he gave his name (the house now called
the United States); but having changed the entire order of his business,
that is, from being the proprietor of a cheap restaurant to the requirements
and prices of other hotels, he erred; and later the hotel passed out of
his possession. He had been proprietor of a publichouse which was
burned out in 1814, and failed. Obtaining credit then for another house,
corner of Water and Fulton streets, he some years after surprised the public
by furnishing what were termed his shilling (12.5 cents) plates, consisting
of best Fulton Market beef, or poultry, and potatoes. It was such an innovation
upon existing practice and price, that, becoming popular, he reaped sufficient
profits to pay off his debts, and commence the construction of the hotel
that bore his name. The bedcoverings or quilts for the entire house
were covered with "patchwork" made by Mrs. Holt.
In 1827 an Englishwoman, Mrs. Frances Trollope, arrived
here, proceeded to Cincinnati and essayed a business there, which proved
to be unprofitable. Disappointed and vexed, she published in I 1832 her
"Domestic Life of the Americans"; a book in which she expressed
herself in voluble vituperation of the common customs and manners of the
residents of a town, which at that period was, alike to all newly occupied
Western settlements, rude in converse and regardless of appearances. She
wholly ignored the grandeur of the country and its evidences of a brilliant
future, and when launched upon the sea of censure and ridicule she did
not confine herself to the West, but declared not only our standard observances
and moral character to be inferior to those of England, but, in religious
propriety, to be even inferior to that of France. In illustration of our
customs and manners she aired her spleen in setting forth the inexplicable
indecency, when sitting in a chair, of putting our feet on a table; wearing
our hats within doors, of offensive expectoration and ejecting saliva or
tobacco juice without heed of the distance. Dickens, I think, put the observed
limit at ten paces.
Now, although her criticisms and assertions were engendered
in disappointment, national animosity, and revenge, they were essentially
true, and however chagrined we were, we acknowledged them as such by essaying
to correct our manners; as was afterward universally demonstrated whenever
one in public fell within the range of her criticisms, as the cry of "Trollope!
Trollope! Trollope !" was immediately vociferated. In illustration
of the extent to which such action was practiced: at the Park Theatre on
an evening when the house was exceptionally full, one of a party occupying
a front seat in the centre of the auditorium, soon after the close of the
first act, leisurely and inconsiderately turned his back to the stage and
rested himself on the front enclosure of the box, whereupon "Trollope!
Trollope! Trollope!" was shouted from several quarters, in which I
joined; but so soon as it was apparent that the party was disposed to ignore
the rebuke, the pit arose, some occupants of the boxes followed, and the
performance was arrested. When the person, in sporting phrase, finally
"threw up the sponge," the house gave three cheers, not in compliment
to him who had caused the censure, but to itself for its success; and such
for many years was the course in public on all similar occasions of evident
impropriety or neglect of the accepted observances of society. So much
for Mrs. Trollope's book, much talked of at the time. It gave pleasure
to the English, but profit to us, however much we may have been annoyed
by it at first. Mrs. Trollope was mother of two men of letters, Thomas
Adolphus, and his better known brother Anthony, the novelist. Her "Domestic
Life" has just been reprinted here, and may be commended to my readers
as an interesting study for them.
October 3. A meeting in favor of immediate abolition of,slavery
was called to be held in Clinton Hall (Beekman Street). A crowd assembled
at the place to oppose it. Thereupon the permission that had been given
to use the hall was withdrawn, and the crowd adjourned to Tammany Hall
and passed resolutions disapproving the object of the proposed meeting.
October 9. The boiler of the steamboat New England,
hence to Hartford, burst; fifteen persons being killed and twentysix
scalded and wounded.
James Fenimore Cooper arrived in New York on November
5 after long residence abroad.
An association known as the New York Opera company through
the efforts of Lorenzo Da Ponte, constructed a theatre on the corner of
Church and Leonard streets the first structure in New York designed for
the representation of Italian operas, which was opened with area eclat
on November 18, Rossini's "La Gazza Ladra" being chosen for
the initial performance. The prices were boxes, $1.50; "sofa seats,"
$2.00; pit, $1.00; gallery, 75 cents. But the time was far too early for
successful maintenance of an operahouse in New York (indeed the time
has not yet arrived for that), and as the enterprise languished, it was
abandoned, and in 1836 the place was opened for dramatic performances as
the National Theatre. James H. Hackett leased and held it for a brief period.
It was destroyed by fire in September, 1839, rebuilt and again destroyed
in May, 1841.
The country market and fishmarket at Washington Market
was opened on December 16
I was present at the annual feast of the Krout Club, an
organization of many years before, the Chief of which was known as the
Grand Krout, and the secretary in the fall of the year announced that his
august Chief had been seen to nod, by which he signified his consent to
an assemblage of all Krouts. The exercises were announced to commence at
10 A. M., when the "smoked geese would parade," followed by sauerkraut,
which signified that cards would be indulged in until dinner; preceding
which the secretary read his annual report, which consisted of a humorous
relation of what had occurred and what had not occurred. Stoneall's Hotel,
in Fulton Street, was the usual place of meeting, the notice of which was
the display of a cabbage head on a pole projected from a window. When the
death of a member was announced he was said to have wilted.
In this year President Jackson caused the Government money
in the Bank of the United States at Philadelphia, and its several branches,
as at New York, Boston, etc., to be withdrawn and deposited in some State
banks. The act was vigorously opposed and censured by the opposition press,
and public meetings were held in various places for many months after,
denouncing the measure; but inasmuch as the bank made a very disastrous
failure soon after, the act of the President met with much less condemn,
About this time a Mr. Xavier Chabert, who figured here
as the "Fireeater," and, being protected by asbestos clothes,
would enter a heated oven and emerge with impunity, etc., etc., married
the possessor of a life interest in the block bounded by Ninth and Tenth
avenues, Sixteenth and Seventeenth streets. To the disgust of parties interested
in the progress of Chelsea, she gave leases of the land which were limited
by her life. It was held by the objecting parties in Chelsea that the presence
of a block of low wooden buildings (many of which were, and were being
transplanted, from other localities), cowsheds and stables, would seriously
injure them; on the other hand it was asserted that upon death and reversion
of the interest, all the encumbrances would be removed. The response was,
"Never, so long as they existed,"- and with a few exceptions
they yet remain.
This year saw the beginning of the Millerite "craze,"
which assumed considerable proportions during the ten years or more next
succeeding; causing a good deal of talk and newspaper comment and unsettling
many weak minds. William Miller, of Hampton, N. Y., believed or pretended
that he had discovered from his study of Holy Scripture that the end of
the world was near at hand, and prophesied Christ's second coming in the
month of April, 1843. The new doctrine was promulgated by preaching and
circulation of books and tracts, and secured adherents, many of whom, when
the appointed time drew near, divested themselves of their property, as
being of no further use to them, and prepared ascension robes, to be in
readiness for the great day. Nothing unusual occurring at that time, it
was asserted that some error in computation had been found, and that the
true date was in October of the same year. A letter in the Troy Times
of July, 1894, contains an account by the Rev. Professor Wentworth,
then of the Troy Conference Academy, of a visit made by him to Miller on
this date. Professor Wentworth says that, though it was the night set for
the judgment and conflagration of the world, and the faithful were casting
away their worldly goods in contempt of all things perishable, it was not
so with Miller himself. "He believed," says Dr. Wentworth, "in
the Scriptural injunction 'Occupy till I come,' and his fields were clean
mown and reaped, his woodhouse was full of wood, sawed and piled for
winter's use; forty rods of new stone wall had been built that fall, and
a drag stood ready with bowlders as a cargo to be laid upon the wall the
Lydia Maria Child's caustic comment on the Millerites
was that she had "heard of very few instances of stolen money restored,
or falsehoods acknowledged, as a preparation for the dreaded event."
Upon the failure of the second prophecy reasons for a new date were forthcoming,
and again on March 22, 1844, the Millerites, clad in their ascension robes,
gathered on hilltops, looking vainly for the Coming in the East. It
was a pathetic company, and much of the pathetic quality attended this
delusion, in the course of which the more feeble minds became deranged,
and not a few persons committed suicide.
During the years embraced in this recital, much discussion
of the subject went on among people of a higher class than Miller's proselytes.
Thus, the Rev. Dr. Beman of Troy, N. Y. (predecessor in his pastorale of
the Rev. Professor Marvin R. Vincent, now of Union Theological Seminary),
delivered a course of lectures on the "Second Coming of Christ,"
which showed some advanced views, though he disclaimed belief in Miller's
Miller outlived his reputation as a prophet, and the end
of the world came for him in December, 1849. The Second Adventist sect,
however, of which he was the real father, still survives as his monument,
having attained the dignity of further sectism and subdivision within itself;
some of its members having developed new views of the Trinity, while some
retain orthodox opinions; some taking up the Seventh Day notion, while
others observe Sunday, etc., etc.
Miller was of course the figurehead, but the brains
were in the head of Joshua V. Himes, an early convert, who became the real
organizer of the movement and provided and disseminated its literature.
In after years when sect after sect appeared among the remaining adherents
of Miller, Mr. Himes continued to be the leader of the more conservative.
At the age of seventyfour he received Deacon's orders in the Episcopal
Church, at the hands of Bishop Clarkson, and remained in the missionary
charge then entrusted to him, and active therein until his death at ninety
years, toward the close of 1895. It is a remarkable fact that the Millerite
movement largely helped to prepare the way for the Episcopal Church, into
which thousands came after "the time" had passed by. It made
no converts from that church, but drew from the religious bodies in which
the doctrines of the intermediate state, the Resurrection, and the second
coming of Christ had been most ignored. The movement was, as has been well
said, "the revenge of neglected eschatological truth."
October 13, at the fall meeting of the Jockey Club on
Union Course, L.I., there were four entries for the four-mile heats, viz.:
"Black Maria," by John C. Stevens; "Trifle," by John
C. Craig; "Lady Relief," by E. A. Darcey; and "Slim,"
by Bela Badger and John C. Tillotson. "Black Maria" won the first
heat; the second was declared dead between "BlackMaria" and "Trifle";
the third was won by "Trifle"; the fourth by "Lady Relief,"
and the fifth and last by "Black Maria." "Slim" was
distanced in the second heat, and "Trifle" in the fifth. The
times of the heats in minutes and seconds were 8.06, 7.55, 8.13, 8.39,
and 8.47. The track was heavy from recent rains and the weather cloudy,
dark, and cold. This was the first and only twentymile race that ever
occurred, and with four horses it would occur only with the occurrence
of three winning each a heat, and one dead heat. When this performance
is compared with that of the Anglomaniac practices here of the present
day, of three quarters, seveneighths, and one and onequarter
mile flat races, the question of an improvement in the racehorses
of this day, in all points, over those of half a century ago becomes very
In this year there was built at Baltimore by Williamson
& Kennard, for William McKim, the bark Ann McKim, of 494 tons,
having greater proportionate length to beam than was the practice, and
finer ends, and, as a consequence, she was a faster sailer than the ordinary
vessel of that or a preceding time. She, in fact, approached the construction
of a half clipper.
The same party had had built in the squaretopsail
schooner Yellott, of two hundred tons. She was of the type of the
worldwidefamed Baltimore clippers-long, low, and sharp, with
raking masts and great rise of floor; which latter element made this type,
from insufficient proportional freight capacity, to be suited only for
slavers, privateers, opium smugglers, oyster and fruit bearers, etc. For
general freight and long voyages they were unsuited, but for the specific
services above named, they were well suited and profitable.
November 25. In or about this period, when Houston Street
was being raised to the grade, many feet above the wet lands between Broadway
and Third Avenue, a gentleman who had been mayor of the city remarked to
his companion in my hearing, "I pity the man who owns this."
The "Red House," fronting on Second Avenue between
One Hundred and Tenth and One Hundred and Thirteenth streets, having a
vacant area attached, was rented by an association of gentlemen, and occupied
solely as a resort for pigeonshooting; named after the wellknown
house and grovels for pigeonshooting near London. In a few years,
however, the deaths of three of the principal stockholders and patrons
induced the remainder to dispose of the lease, when the place was employed
as a hotel, a short trottingtrack was laid out, and it soon became
the headquarters of driving and trotting. It was here the prowess of "Flora
Temple," originally purchased for the considerable sum of eighty dollars,
was first evinced.
the originators of this enterprise were James Minell.
Jehiel Jagger, Jacob Harsen, George W. Blunt, John Lawrence, and some few
others, with whom 1 was associated.
December 31, Chapel Street (College Place) was widened
from Franklin to Murray Street.
In April of the previous year, Lexington Avenue was opened
and John Street, from Broadway to Pearl Street, widened, and the New York
and Harlem Railroad in operation from Prince Street to Murray Hill.
Shinbone Alley was opened from Wooster Street (University
Place) to Fifth Avenue, and between Washington Square and Eighth Street