1847-1848.-ANDREW H. MICKLE, 1847; WILLIAM V. BRADY, 1847 ­ 1848; AND WILLIAM F. HAVEMEYER, 1848, MAYORS

JANUARY 13, members of the Sketch Club (established in 1827), with a few of their friends invited to join them for the purpose, founded the Century, which has ever remained a club of peculiar distinction. For two years the Century occupied rooms at 495 Broadway, removing in 1849 to 435 Broome Street, and again in the next year to 575 Broadway. From May, 1852, it occupied the house No. 24 Clinton Place, until in the spring of 1857 it removed to its house No. 109 (old No. 42) East Fifteenth Street, remaining there till (1892) it took possession of the beautiful new house now occupied at No. 7 West Forty­third Street.

January 28, a party at Mr. Robert Ray's attracted all the fashion of the city and was the subject of remark, not only for the splendor of the entertainment, but because the new house was so far uptown. It stood at the corner of Twenty­eighth Street and Ninth Avenue, being the house lately removed (1894) from the place it had dignified with its fine proportions.

The enlargement of the Erie Canal was commenced in this year and completed in 1862, the cost of which was six times that of the original, at its opening in 1825; and up to 1856 reached $7,143,759, or a total, to 1862, of $52,491,915.74.

April. The old Richmond Hill Theatre was rebuilt and renamed the Greenwich.

In May Julia Dean appeared at the Bowery as Julia in "The Hunchback." She was a beautiful woman, modest, intelligent, painstaking, and deservedly popular.

February 7, died James Roosevelt, eighty­seven years of age, much respected; the son of Isaac, who was one of the original directors and president of the first of our banks.

In this month much activity was shown in the relief of the Irish sufferers from famine; a great meeting was held on the 16th at the Broadway Tabernacle, and by March 1 the Relief Committee had received more than fifty thousand dollars. Alexander T. Stewart chartered and furnished a ship loaded with provisions for the relief of the suffering people, and, if I mistake not, that munificent citizen, the late Eugene Kelly, did a like act.

News of General Taylor's striking victory of Buena Vista was received on March 31, and May 7 was ordered by the authorities. as a day of rejoicing for this victory and the later capture of Vera Cruz by a combined bombardment of the Army and Navy, the former under General Scott, and the latter under Commodore Perry. This was a most brilliant fete; the city was thronged with visitors and seemed covered with flags, under which a great military procession took its way, greeted by the triumphant voice of cannon. A general illumination in the evening was witnessed by even greater crowds than had attended the daylight observances. Scarcely was this celebration over when news arrived of Scott's victory of Cerro Gordo, the rout of the Mexican army, and the flight of General Santa Anna; the capture of the Mexican general's wooden leg adding to the hilarity of our people over a success so great.

May 22, Stone Street was widened from Whitehall to Broad Street.

June 1, the steamer Washington left for Liverpool; she was the first American steamship to cross the ocean in the mail and passenger service.

About the first of June a steamboat race occurred between the Commodore Vanderbilt, owned by him, and the Oregon, owned by George Law, from New York up the river to Croton Point, and return. The Oregon won, covering the distance of seventy­five miles in three hours and a quarter. The interest in this race was greater than any ever manifested here; far in advance of that shown in the races of the Albany Line boats or the Highlander and Robert L. Stevens; it was equal to that of the later contests between the R. E. Lee and Natchez, from New Orleans to St. Louis. In order to reduce the draught of the vessels they were docked, the bottoms cleaned; furniture, ornaments, and all unnecessary articles were taken on shore; and previous to the day of the race the Oregon's inner bottom (that is, between her frames) was freed of water by sponges where it could not be reached by dippers. In unison with this regard of lessening of draught of water, the necessary supply of coal was carefully estimated; but in the case of the Oregon it fell short when near the end of the course, and every loose article that could be spared, together with some joinery, was sacrificed to feed the fires.

Commodore Vanderbilt was much disappointed; the loss of the money was not considered: it was the one who had defeated him. He bore his defeat manfully, however, but in relating to me how he was defeated he evinced his feeling. It was to him what Moscow in the Russian campaign was to Napoleon-his first defeat.

July 27, George Kirk, a slave who had absconded from his master in Georgia, upon being claimed as a fugitive, was taken before Judge Edmonds, who ordered his release. The assemblage of negroes on this occasion was without precedent; the streets leading to the Courthouse were blocked by vociferous and excited crowds.

July 30, Christ Church in Ann Street burned and destroyed.

August 6. Peter G. Stuyvesant died, a man closely concerned with the best social life of New York, the representative of an enduring "Knickerbocker" family, and possessor of a great colonial estate. This reminds me that the Stuyvesant pear­tree, then and for years afterward standing at the north­east corner of Third Avenue and Thirteenth Street, had reached the age of two hundred years in May, and therefore became an object of perhaps peculiar regard, though it had long been viewed as an interesting relic. This tree was brought from Holland by Governor Stuyvesant and planted with his own hands on his farm, in the place where it stood until its lamented fall. About 1835 it was protected by a stout wooden railing, which afterward gave place to one of iron, in which condition the venerable tree will be well remembered by many of my readers, for it flourished at least so lately as the year 1867.

In mid­September arrived news of General Scott's victory of Cherubusco, the first in the series of his successes under the walls of the City of Mexico, gained against enormous odds of numbers. The public excitement over the bulletins was very great and perhaps specially in New York, many of whose sons were with Scott's army.

September 18, in the morning the Bowery Theatre was wholly consumed by fire. Gabriel Ravel's benefit was announced for the evening-another instance of the apparent connection between benefits and fires.

September 25, died Major William Popham, aged ninety­five, last surviving original member of the Society of the Cincinnati, a man who had served his country well, and whose person and gentle, amiable character were long regarded with affectionate veneration by his fellow citizens of the town which he had seen to increase from a village of perhaps twelve thousand inhabitants to a city of near half­a­million.

October 19, the corner­stone of a monument of Washington was laid in Hamilton Square on Lenox Hill; but the monument never was raised.

The Hamburg­American Packet Co., hence to Hamburg, was established.

The Twenty­seventh Regiment of State militia was reorganized as the Seventh.

At the end of October came intelligence of the victories of Molino del Rey and Chapultepec, and General Scott's triumphant entry into the City of Mexico. Besides the personal interest in the fortunes of individuals in our army this news was most important in the general or political sense, bringing in near view the close of the war, which in fact was speedily ended thereafter; the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo being signed on February 2, next ensuing.

New York was very deeply concerned in the conduct of this war. It was a New Yorker, Commodore John Drake Sloat, who with his ship outraced the British and insured our occupation of California by raising the American flag at Monterey. General William J. Worth was a mainstay of General Scott through all of his brilliant campaign. The monument now standing opposite the west side of Madison Square records his deeds. General John E. Wool, after serving in the field during the earlier part of the war, was afterward most efficient in forwarding troops. He sent twelve thousand men, fully equipped, within six weeks. Philip Kearny, a native of this city, was the first man to enter the gates of the City of Mexico, and in the list of those most famed for gallant conduct in action were the names of Hamilton, Schuyler, Morris, Thorn, Graham, and others of New York's leading families.

At the end of this year the managers of the Cunard Line found it necessary to abandon their purpose of making Boston their sole American port, and began to send half of their ships to New York. A meeting of merchants was convened for the purpose of giving a welcome to the commander of the Hibernia, the first Cunarder in the New York service.

In 1843 the Hibernia had been added to the line, and in 1845 the Cambria. In 1847 the British Government required a double service and increased the compensation to £173,340 sterling per annum. To comply with this requirement four new steamers were built, viz.: America, Niagara, Canada, and Europa, in 1850 they were followed by the Asia and in 1852 by the Arabia, all of which from the first to the last, had been and were side­wheelers. In the latter part of the year four iron screw­propeller vessels were added, viz.: Anstralain, Sydney, Andes, and Alps, they being the first fitted with accommodations for emigrants. In 1856 the company responded to the prejudice of its patrons and constructed the side­wheeler Persia; subsequently to this the Scotia was built, which vessel reduced the passage between Liverpool and this port to eight days and twenty­two hours. As many saloon passengers now leave Liverpool in one week of an autumn month as were carried in the whole of the first year of the operation of the line.

An event then of concern to many New Yorkers was the reduction at this time of the fixed term of service for (volunteer) firemen from seven to five years. In 1816 a period of service had been first established, to allow to the firemen exemption from jury and military duty. The required term at first was ten years. In 1829 it was reduced to seven years, and now the further reduction to five years met with general approval, for this exemption was the only substantial reward received for their difficult and valuable service by the rank and file, though the chief engineer of the department received a salary, and for a few years his assistants also were paid.

The German Liederkranz was founded in this year and still flourishes in great strength, though having thrown off, by a process of fision, the equally important Arion Society. It maintains upon its roll the names of many of our native citizens.

Plans for widening Broadway from Forty­fifth to Seventy­first streets were submitted on May 5 of this year, and on December 11 the scheme for widening the same street just above its junction with Fifth Avenue (where the Worth monument stands).

The New York Hotel at 721 Broadway, between Washington and Waverly places, was opened by S. B. Monnot. The building of this hotel, at the time so far up­town, was held by the pessimists to be a very wild and perilous undertaking. Monnot came to the country as a cook, and having realized a small capital, he embarked in this enterprise, which proved to be very successful. Upon his retirement the house was leased and operated by Hiram (Cranston.

This year was a time of considerable and varied interest in stage affairs. Palmo's Opera House presented the ingenious Samuel Lover (author of "Handy Andy"), in entertainments of songs, anecdotes, and recitations, and followed with a new opera company, which included Signorina Clotilda Barili, half­sister to Adelina Patti, a charming young woman, who was esteemed a "divinity" by the young men of our society, and who married in the next year a son of Colonel Thorne. It was nearing its end as a home of opera, and in the next year gave way to the new Astor Place enterprise and became Burton's Theatre.

At the Bowery Mary Taylor, from the Olympic, began her first engagement as a star in New York, in January, becoming a very general favorite.

August. The old manager Simpson opened the Park for what proved to be his last season, with an English version of "Linda," in which appeared Mme. Anna Bishop, then alike beautiful and fascinating. She was the wife of Sir Henry Bishop, the composer.

Castle Garden was opened at the end of June with a good dramatic company. The Havana Opera Company appeared here in the middle of August, playing on alternate nights, and thus continued for a month.

September 27. The Broadway Theatre, between Pearl and Anthony (Worth) streets, opened with the "School for Scandal" and "Used Up"; Henry Wallack in the part of Sir Peter Teazle, his first appearance in New York for seven years. Very notable is the Sir Charles Coldstream of this evening, for it was the debut in this country of "Mr. Lester," as the housebills announced, in other words John Lester Wallack, who thus began his long career in New York.

November. In this year was built the Astor Place Opera House, mournfully famous for events happening there not long after. This was a delightful theatre, containing about 1800 seats (700 of them in the gallery). Max Maretzek said of it that "everybody could see, and what is of greater consequence, could be seen. Never, perhaps, was any theatre built that afforded a better opportunity for the display of dress." The house was opened on the 22d, with " Ernani."

December 12 died Chancellor James Kent, at the age of eighty­four, a man most eminent for the just respect and affection of his fellows. His funeral, from Calvary Church on December 15, became a great public function, being attended by the Common Council, the members of the bar in a body, and a multitudinous company of citizens. Flags were at half­mast on the public buildings and the shipping in the harbor.

A day or two after another old and respected citizen, Peter A. Mesier, died suddenly at seventy­four.

December 16 There was introduced here a corps of danseuses, known as the Viennoise, some eighty or more in number; they made their debut at the Park Theatre. Their performances were of a character and style wholly different from any thing of the kind we had ever seen, and they were well patronized; but for a short period only, as their exhibitions were too uniform in their character.

The volume of ship­building in this city for the year was 39,918 tons launched and 29,870 in process of construction on the stocks, employing 2300 workmen.

1848. The inmates of the Almshouse at Bellevue were transferred to the new buildings on Blackwell's Island.

The New York and Erie Railroad was completed to Port Jervis, N. Y., on January 6.

January 20, the body of a female, upon being disinterred from a grave in the German Cemetery seventeen years after interment, was found to be perfect in form and in appearance.

March 7, Henry Clay visited New York as the guest of the Mayor and Corporation. He was received at Castle Garden by his entertainers and a great concourse of citizens. The next day he attended the impressive ceremonies with which New York received the body of John Quincy Adams, who had died on February 23, after a paralytic seizure on February 21, while in his seat at the Capitol, engaged in the discharge of duty. It was said that this funeral observance was shared by the largest assemblage of people which ever had gathered in New York. Mr. Clay remained in town for several days, being the centre of many gatherings, and the recipient of honors unwonted and sometimes inconvenient, since crowds attended wherever he was expected to be found.

March 29, John Jacob Astor died, aged eighty­four, leaving, perhaps, the greatest fortune then existing in the country, and certainly the greatest in "quick assets"; the whole of it acquired by his own diligence and sagacity. His funeral was on April 1, from the house of his son William B., in Lafayette Place. By bequest of four hundred thousand dollars in Mr. Astor's will, the Astor Library was founded. This idea he had adopted in 1838, and in March, 1842, had appointed Dr. Cogswell to be Librarian. The Library was incorporated January 13, 1849 ­

February 10, at the Olympic Theatre, Chanfrau first appeared as Mose, the Bowery b'hoy, in a play written by Baker, the prompter, named "New York in 1848." Rewritten and enlarged, and renamed "A Glance at New York," it ran for seventy nights. Mary Taylor as Lize became very famous.

April 2, occurred one of the many tragical incidents in the adventurous experience of the New York Fire Department. Fire broke out in a sugar­house in Duane Street, and George Kerr, an assistant engineer, and Henry Fargis, assistant foreman of Engine 38, while in the discharge of duty were killed under a falling wall, which severely injured several others of the force. Kerr and Fargis were buried in Greenwood by the Firemen's Monument Association, which had been erected after a design by Mr. Robert E. Launitz.

May 12, Harlem Railroad opened to Croton Falls.

May 26. Fire destroyed the stables of Kipp & Brown, stage proprietors, at Ninth Avenue and Twenty­sixth Street, consuming 27 stages and 130 horses.

April 11, Schumann's "Paradise and the Peri" was first given in this country, with a chorus of 120 and orchestra of 60, I think under Mr. Henry C. Timm. Mr. Timm produced Rossini's "Stabat Mater," also for the first time in America, at about this date.

April 12, the Pacific Mail Steamship Co. was incorporated, but its steamers were not operated from this city until the departure of the Henry Chauncey to Colon on November 1, 1865.

In May Major­general Winfield Scott was received by the city authorities and an eager crowd enthusiastic over the hero of the march to Mexico. There had been talk of his nomination by the Whigs for the Presidency (as indeed happened in 1852). The convention on June 9 at Philadelphia preferred General Taylor, as a more "available" candidate than either Scott or Henry Clay, whose nomination was warmly urged, but who met on this occasion his final disappointment.

June 5, Simpson was obliged to give up, and abandoned the Park Theatre, where for thirty­eight years he had been stage­manager or manager. He had made great sums, but had lost them, and sold out for an annuity of fifteen hundred dollars, but was so affected by his misfortunes that he died almost immediately. He was a man of so much importance in his vocation that after his death a public meeting was called by the Mayor at the Astor House, at which suitable resolutions were adopted, characterizing the departed manager as an "exemplary instance of probity, usefulness, and virtue," and suggesting benefits for his family a suggestion that resulted in a very liberal series. The "School for Scandal" was given with a cast including Placide, Blake, Burton, Barrett, Richings, Walcot, Henry Hunt, etc.-a most remarkable conjunction. The series of the Simpson benefits about this date included a reading of "Hamlet" by Macready, a concert at the Astor Place Opera House, and performances at Burton's, the National, and the Olympic.

Hamblin, the Bowery manager, undertook to revive the glories of the old Park, and this fall reopened that theatre, very extensively remodelled, improved, and beautified. Even in the pit there were cushioned seats, in place of the ancient boards covered with canvas.

In June a benefit was Given at the Broadway Theatre for Kipp & Brown, sufferers from the fire hereinbefore noted, and one for the widow and children of Samuel Pray, an attache of the house who had been strangely killed through the falling upon him of the heavy curtainroller. Two of Pray's three daughters became Mrs. Barney Williams and Mrs. W. J. Florence.

July 10, the Keying, a Chinese junk, arrived here, being the first and only one up to this time (1895) that ever reached America.

The New York daily Tribune (Horace Greeley) joined in the popular cry regarding the constructive mileage of members of Congress. In illustration, when a Congress ceased to exist, as at 12 M. on the alternate 4th of March, and the President had convened a session of the Senate for Executive action upon his nominations for office, some Senators would claim mileage for their constructive journey home, and their return again in one day, added to which, it was also charged that members did not take the shortest routes to and from Washington, and this expose evolved some epithets regarding Greeley's action which were not in any wise laudatory or complimentary to him, but they should have been.

In September news reached New York of the discovery of gold in California, and thus began one of the most fascinating chapters of our history. In three years California was transformed from a wild region, containing about fifteen thousand white population, into a State with more than a quarter of a million people. So sudden were the discovery of gold and its effects that in a Gazetteer, or Geographical Dictionary, bearing a publisher's date of 1852, may be found, in the article "California," the amusing line: "So far as known, minerals are of very little importance."

In this month an event happened of great consequence in the musical history of New York and the entire country. The Germania Orchestra arrived here on September 25, and gave its first concert at the Astor Place Opera House on October 5. Our public was little schooled in orchestra music, and with small knowledge felt little interest; the concerts therefore showed bad pecuniary results. The orchestra next tried Philadelphia, but there utterly failed, and disbanded. Happening, however, to be called to Washington for a performance, they rallied for that purpose and met with a reception so different that they ventured to test Baltimore. Being very successful there, they attempted Boston, where they excited much enthusiasm. In consequence of such encouragement, the orchestra resumed its original purpose, and went concertizing through the States for some years; becoming famous. The company disbanded in September, 1854, its members applying themselves to the private exercise of their profession. By those subsequent labors, as well as by their concerts, the members of the Germania greatly accelerated the progress of musical culture in America, and deserve a grateful remembrance.

October 3, Broadway was ordered to be widened from Twenty­first to Twenty­fifth Street.

July 10, Palmo's Opera House, from which the lyric drama had retreated uptown, was opened as Burton's Theatre, with John Brougham as stage­manager. The venture was not instantly successful, but on the 24th some public attention was secured by the production of "Dombey and Son" for the first time on any stage, in John Brougham's version; Brougham doubling Bunsby and Bagstock, Mrs. Brougham playing Susan Nipper, and Burton Cap'n Cuttle

In October Maurice Power, son of the great Tyrone, appeared and disappointed expectation.

November 18, another fire in omnibus stables destroyed the property of the Murphys at Third Avenue and Twenty­seventh Street; consuming 150 horses, 25 stages, and 25 sleighs, and involving two churches, a parsonage, and a public school. While this was in progress a new alarm was caused by fire at the Bowery and Broome Street; a fresh conflagration then broke out at Thirty­fifth Street and Eighth Avenue. These were all burning when the distracted firemen were further called to burning stables in West Seventeenth Street. The town seemed to be full of threatening flame and light.

December 11, Hamblin appeared as Richard, the play being given with the rich Kean appointments. It was the last tragedy ever seen at the Park. December 16, just before opening the doors for Mme. Monplaisir's benefit (again the ill omen), a hanging file of playbills blown against a lighted gas­jet communicated fire to the scenery, and within an hour the house was entirely burned out. It never was rebuilt. The first performance at the Park was on January 29, 1798.

This year witnessed the rise of modern "spiritualism," through the delusion or deception then known as "the Rochester Knockings." These arose in a family named Fox, then living in Wayne County, but afterward removing to Rochester, N. Y., as their fame extended, in order to seek a wider field for their mysterious knocks on walls or floors, table­tipping, etc. In Rochester the Fox girls gave public exhibitions, and in 1856 appeared before audiences in this city. In the same year the late D. D. Home (Hume) first appeared as a "medium," being then seventeen years old. Afterward he visited Europe and produced "manifestations" before several crowned heads. Mediums then and afterward multiplied, and a new sect of Spiritualist believers sprang up. Many strange things were performed by the mediums, some of which were proved indubitably to be fraudulent impositions. Men of science have investigated the mediumistic manifestations with the conclusion that, after all abatement, a residuum might remain, which must be attributed to some force not yet understood. The mediums never have discovered or declared any new truth of science to the world, and if they are prompted by spirits, then it is certain that the spirits have made very little advance on their earthly conditions.

The election of November, resulting in the choice of General Taylor for President, was a sweeping victory for the Whigs-and their last.

December 28, the New York and Erie Railroad was opened to Binghamton, N. Y. In this year, Woodhull & Minturn retiring from business, their ships were purchased by Grinnell, Minturn & Co.

About this period flourished Henry C. Marx; more generally known as "Dandy Marx," and so designated from his style of dress and manner of wearing it-added to a waxed moustache, the first essay of the kind that ever was seen on Broadway or elsewhere in this city. He originated and commanded a company of Hussars; and despite his apparent effeminacy, he was manly, bold, and generous. He left three sisters, who resided at 673 Broadway.

In a file of an old newspaper, I noticed the case of one having been duped by a swindle at that time and for some years after known as the "pocket­book drop," then a favorite trick; but of late years fallen into disuse, probably because the "sawdust game" presents a more extensive field of operation and more profitable, with less risk; inasmuch as the victim, being just as much a culprit as the operator, unless of so low a grade that he prefers his money to his character, naturally forbears presenting a complaint that manifests his own criminality.

At this period the fashion of negro minstrelsy must have been about at its height as a popular influence. This form of amusement originated with "Dan" Emmett and some of his friends as early as 1842; the first public performances being those of the "Virginia Minstrels" in 1843; hereinbefore mentioned. They were an utter novelty, and caught the popular fancy. Buckley's "New Orleans Serenaders" were organized in the same year (1843), and by 1845 or 1846 many travelling troupes were on the road, carrying the new diversion even to the smaller towns. One of these that I remember included in its number an actual negro, who played the bones with great skill; and indeed the rage for negro delineation very largely infected the blacks, so that eventually several companies of them were formed, which went about the country engaged in somewhat extravagant imitation of themselves.

E. P. Christy did more than any other man to regularize this entertainment and give it the form which became characteristic, and his company was easily at the head of all those extant at that day. "Christy's Minstrels" appeared early in 1846, at Mechanics' Hall, No. 472 Broadway, and remained there for nine years, becoming famous throughout the country. His "star" was George Christy (Harrington), who, I believe, had for a time a company of his own at 444 Broadway, which became another noted seat of minstrelsy. After E. P. Christy's retirement, George Christy managed both companies; George and "Billy" Birch were the "bones" of the two troupes. I knew Birch's father, who spelled the name Burch-a queer old man, of much dry wit; he thought that his son was the greatest living American. "Billy" afterward suffered shipwreck, I think, in the loss of the Central America, and it was related that while he was floating on a hencoop or some such convenient and useful object, tenderly bearing his canary­bird, he came upon one of his friends tossing in the sea, to whom he called to "come in out of the wet," thereupon helping him to a place on the hencoop. Birch's after career with his San Francisco Minstrels is known to very modern readers.

Such readers, however, will fail to understand the extent and power of the minstrel "craze" when it was at its height. The reach of its influence was very wide. New "negro songs" were sent out almost daily from the publishers' presses and were sung all over the land. I do not know whether Stephen C. Foster had yet begun to write his songs, but many of those then issued were of singular sweetness, and the use of them was almost universal. Households that had amused themselves with singing English opera (which had been greatly in fashion) and English glees and part­songs, turned to the new melodies. Besides the original compositions, a crowd of parodies appeared: "The Mellow Horn" became "The Yellow Corn"; Balfe's air, "I Dreamt that I Dwelt in Marble Halls," was Africanized into "I Dreamt that I Dwelt in Hotel Walls," etc., etc. Many of the earliest minstrel melodies are still in use; it is but this winter (1895) that I heard a great company of gentlemen singing "Dearest Mae." Indeed the whole "movement" lasted long; "Bryant's Minstrels" were organized so lately as 1857, and remained before the public till the death of "Dan" Bryant, about twenty years ago. Other troupes, besides those here mentioned,-Campbell's, Wood's, Kelly & Leon's, Morris Bros.', Pell & Trowbridge's, and many more,-flourished greatly during the reign of negro minstrelsy.

The New York and Harlem Railroad was opened to Dover in this year.

Comparatively, it is but a few years since the Venetian style of awnings and shades has been introduced. Until an ordinance was passed regulating the height of awning­posts, and later one requiring their removal, awnings extended from buildings and were attached to the posts which were set inside the curb.

It was in this year that a local company was organized and the steamers Washington and Hermann were constructed for service between this city and Southampton, England, and bearing the United States Mail. Their design in both model, power, and rig was not conducive to high speed, nor. was the construction of their engines such as to maintain the success that was presaged for them, either at home or abroad, and the service was continued but for a very few years.

Mr. E. K. Collins had essayed from as early as 1840 to induce the Government to give a line of vessels a sufficient subsidy for the bi­weekly transportation of the mails between this port and Liverpool, but it was not until this year that by the joint aid of Albert G. Sloo, who was seeking to obtain a subsidy for a line of steamers hence to California via the Isthmus route, and Arnold Harris, who was seeking for one to Astoria and to Chagres via Havana, that success was obtained; the Government granting to Collins and his associates, for a term of ten years, the compensation of three hundred and eighty­five thousand dollars per annum; the service to consist of two round trips a month between New York and Liverpool during eight months of the year, and one round trip a month during the remaining four months of the year. The first sailing under the contract occurred on the 27th of April.

The "Sloo contract" was also for a term of ten years, at the compensation of two hundred and ninety thousand dollars per annum; the service to consist of two round trips a month between New York and New Orleans, touching at Charleston, Savannah, and Havana; and in connection therewith, two round trips per month between Havana and Chagres. The first sailing under the contract occurred in December.

A contract was also entered into with Mr. Arnold Harris for the conveyance of mails from Panama to Astoria, Ore., to connect with the service from Havana to Chagres. This contract required a round trip once a month for a term of ten years from the 1st of October, 1848, for a compensation of one hundred and ninety­nine thousand dollars per annum.

The contracts in question were modified in various ways during the term of ten years; but the original terms were as given above.

The Collins Line (the New York and Liverpool line of steamers) was established in this year by the construction of the steamers Atlantic and Pacific.