Abdy, Edward S., 
Journal of a Residence and Tour in the United States (3 vols, London, 1835)


Volume 1


CHAPTER I. -- Arrival at New York. -- First Introduction. -- Governor Marcy. -- House of Refuge. -- Public Schools. -- Mistakes of Travellers. -- Language.-W.L.Garrison.-Singsing Penitentiary. -- Prerogative of Pardon. -- Education in the United States.

CHAPTER II. -- Trades' Unions. ­­State of Economical Science. --Good breeding. --Alms­house, --Penitentiary, Hospital, &c. --President's visit to New York. --Aristocracy of the Skin. --Relative value of the two races. --Colonization Society.

CHAPTER III. -- Second Visit to Singsing --Prison Discipline.-Strike for Wages. --Second Visit to House of Refuge. --Servants, --Domestic Manners - National Character, Machinery-Fourth of July. --Corporation Dinner. --Episcopal Minister of Africo-American Church --Liberia. --Protest of Colored People against Expatriation.- -New Jersey.--Canal.

CHAPTER IV. -- Connecticut. --New Haven. --Hartford. --Weathersfield Penitentiary. --Large number of colored Convicts accounted for. --Hartford Retreat for the Insane. --Mode of Treatment --Character of the late Superintendant. --Mr. Wadsworth's Villa (Monte Video). --Confectioner's nonchalance.

CHAPTER V. -- Journey to Northampton. --Farmers. --Custom in the distribution of Property by Will. --Law of Descents in case of Intestacy, --Manners. --Prices of Provisions --Mount Holyoke. --Stage, Driver, and Passengers to Boston. --Lecture on Slavery. --African Repository's friendship for the Black Man. --Meeting of Colonization Society. --Death of Dr. Spurzheim. --Africo-Americans excluded from Seats in Church. --Cruelty to a Brazilian and his Wife. --Antiquity of Estates in New England. --Character of White Servants. --Improvement in the Black portion of the Population. --"Liberator" and Abolitionists. --Five thousand Dollars offered by Georgia for Garrison's Arrest. --Squib upon the fair of Boston at Boston Fair. --Mrs. Child. --Black Man preaching in "White" pulpit. --Whites not allowed to marry any but the true "Caucasians." --Lunatic Asylum --Cambridge. --Stage "tabu" for Colored Women. --Boston Pere la Chaise. --Body-snatchers.Nahant. --Young Ladies independent. --Episcopal Church. --Young Gentleman's solicitude for his distant descendants. --Treatment of Africo-American Mechanics.

CHAPTER VI. -- Journey to Providence. --Nullification. --Slavery and  "American" Language --Dexter Asylum for the Poor. --Friends' School. --Views of Slavery and Abolitionists --"Canterbury Tale." --Miss Crandall --Origin, nature, and "constitutionality" of the Law passed to put down her School. --Connecticut persecution of knowledge --Stage -opinions of the School-mistress. --Return to Hartford.

CHAPTER VII. -- Deaf and Dumb Asylum at Hartford. --Girl, deaf, dumb, and blind --Impressment of British Sailors. --Deed of Sale. --Universalists. --Female Seminary. --Lunatic Asylum.

CHAPTER VIII. -- Salary of Preacher. --Country People --Albany. --Autographs --Marriage Ceremony. --Shakers. --Saratoga. --Utica. --Sale of Negro by himself. --Auburn. --Convict labor unpopular. --Canandaigua. --Avon. --Geneseo.

CHAPTER IX. -- Country Gentleman's House. --English Settler. --American Hospitality. --Emigrants to the West. --Buffalo. --Seneca Indians . --Canada. --City of Ararat. --Falls. --Eccentric Englishman. --Canada Farm --Difference of Prices in the two Countries. --Strike of Masters against Servants. --Low Life above Stairs. --Brock's Monument.

CHAPTER X. -- Pride of Skin. --Toronto. --Canadian Methodists. --Indian Preacher and his English Bride. --Latter insulted. --Improvement of Upper Province. --Fugitive Slaves protected. --Lewiston. --Smugglers. --Custom-house Anecdotes --Tuscorora Indians. --Curious Incuriosity of Scotchman. --Rochester Polemics. --Morgan's Abduction --Masonic Oaths . --Anti-masons. --Mormonites.

CHAPTER XI. -- Rochester. --Rules and Remedy for bad Roads. --Fence Laws. --Trenton Falls --Erie Canal. --Governor Clinton --Fulton. --West Point Academy. --Kosciuszko's philanthropy. --Poor Laws. --Sermon on Wilberforce. --Colonization Society again --Chancellor Walworth --Antipathy. --Africo-American craniology. --Young Lady's "Notions" upon Marriage. --Civilization of Africa.

CHAPTER XII. -- Free Blacks. --Abolition of Northern Slavery. --Discussion on Rights of Man. --Congress at Panama. --Too much Freedom in South American States. --Saint Domingo excluded from West India Trade. --Philosophy of the Skin. --Mulatto's Parental Feelings --Chivalry of Slave-Owners and Cruelties of Slavery. --The Fanatics mobbed. --Abolitionists. --Non-intercourse and Non-consumption.


CHAPTER XIII. -- New York Elections.--Vote by Ballot..-Annual Offices. -Restricted qualification of Blacks.--Its origin.--Fire, Firemen, and Fire-offices.-Fugitive Slaves. --City Gaol. -.Ex-sheriff Parkins.-.Anecdote of Runaway and Master. -Remarkable generosity in a Woman of Color..-Spanish and American pride compared.--National Abolition Society. - American Quarterly Review versus the Free Blacks

CHAPTER XIV. -- Law-suits.-Arbitration.-Commercial Morality.-Greek frigates. --Tricks of Trade.-Heroism of a black Boy.Stagecoach Law.-.Schoolboy claimed as Property.Sympathy of African race. --- Bordentown. --American Honesty.-. Philadelphia.-Baltimore.--Whites purchased by Blacks.-Expatriation.

CHAPTER XV. -- Washington City. --Gadsby's.-Capitol.-Two Houses of Congress, -Interview with Cherokee Chiefs.--Treatment of Slaves by Indians. -Causes of Extermination of Aborigines:-Indian Character misrepresented.-Gold Mines-Motive for removing Indians.-Insuperable Bar to incorporation with the Whites.-Despotic Laws of Georgia. -Protest against Emigration.-Religious Persecution in Georgia.

CHAPTER XVI. -- Slavery and Slave Trade in the District of Columbia.Robey's Pen. - Kidnappers. - Soul-drivers. - State of Morals.-Free Blacks.-Country impoverished.- Principles of Constitution.-Claim for Impressed Slave.-Wages and Mileage of Members of Congress.--. Mr. Clay.-Juvenile Depravity.- Funeral of Member.Average Age of Members.-President's Protest.-Mr. Leigh's Speech.

CHAPTER XVII. -- Bank Deposits.--System of Credit.--Mercantile Failures. - Principle of Federal Bank.-Paper Money,-Safety Fund of New York.-Fallacies about Bankers.-Whigs and Tories.Mr. Van Buren; rejected by the Senate.Reasons.-Senate not aristocratical.-Party feeling..-Post Office.--Purity of Bag secured.-Franking.-Assaults upon Members.-Duelling.President Jackson a Soul-driver.Abolition of Slave-trade.Principles of Federal Union illusory.

CHAPTER XVIII. -- Speeches in Congress.-Claims on the French.-Visit to President --Alexandria.-Discontent among the Merchants.-Mount Vernon. - Judge Washington's Slaves.--Establishment of Slave-dealer -- Slaves half starved. -Virginia. -Depopulation.-New kind of Entail --Stage Adventure.- Warrenton.-Election Speeches.

CHAPTER XIX. -- System productive of Idleness.-The Bench.-Eastern and Western Virginia..-.Debates in State Convention.Conversation with Slaves.--Schools.-Beautiful Scenery. --Odious System.-Character of Slaves.-Higher and Lower Classes disunited. -White Labor discouraged. Schemes to check Emigration. -Funeral. -Charlotteville. - University.-Monticello.-Jefferson.-Origin and Objects of Colonization Society.-Students.

CHAPTER XX. -- Wilmington.-Drunkenness.-Cruelty to Slaves.-Price of Religious Slaves.-Overseers.-Export Trade of Human Beings.Destruction of Life by Hard Work. -Richmond. -Education in the South.-Penitentiary.-Treatment of Free Blacks. -Black Labor and White Labor.-Ultimate Triumph of Blacks.--Slave Penal Code.-Gambling.

CHAPTER XXI. -- National Habits.-Stage-coach PreachingWinnsville.Character of Proprietor.-National Vanity.-Old World and New World.---Last Home and Hope of Liberty.Natural Scenery- Staunton,-Cure for Love.-Slaves in the Valley.-Education prohibited.--Purity of Breakfast-table.-Natural Bridge.-Whipping and Gouging. -Customs of the Valley.-Honesty and Hospitality- Soul drivers.-Alleghany.

CHAPTER XXII. -- Mineral Springs. --Lewisburg.- Language. - Periodical Press. - Stage Passengers. - Charleston Salt-Works. -  Guyandott. - Cholera. --- Orthography and Orthoepy. School Prejudices. --National Fallacies. - Kentucky. --Usury Laws.--Lexington.-Inquisitive Traveller.--Lunatic Asylum.-Colored Preacher.-Stage Regulations. Slave System. --Planter convert to Abolition.-Character of Kentuckians .-Frankfort.--Louisville.

CHAPTER XXIII. -- Steam-boat on the Ohio.-- Madison. -Colony of Free Blacks.-Fugitive Slave.-New Law against Slave-aliens in the West Indies.-Indiana saddled with Slave-paupers. -Cincinnati.-Attack on Free Blacks repulsed. -Kidnappers. --Case of Cruelty at New Orleans.-Public Meeting. -Lane Seminary.-.Visits to Colored People.


CHAPTER XXIV. -- Official Report from Liberia.-Proofs of Africo-American Industry.-Ignominious Mode of Interment.-Inadmissibility of Free Blacks' Evidence in Ohio.-White Slave and her Children;--.Blacks have "Notice to quit".-- Sketch of Louisiana.-Courage of a Mulatto.---Blacklegs at Cincinnati.

CHAPTER XXV. -- A Son's Feelings. -- Ripley. - Georgetown.- Colony of Emancipated Slaves.--Mr. Samuel Gist's Will.-Mormonites -- Liberia, by an Eye-witness.--Certificate of Emancipation --Gist's benevolent Intentions defeated -Return to Cincinnati:-Book of Mormon.

CHAPTER XXVI. -- Cincinnatians --Independence of the Press.--Expatriation of the Whites.-..Growth of Cincinnati.--Hillsborough.- Prosperity of Ohio.-Visit to the Camps -Cruel Treatment --Lords' Protest- Bainsbridge.-Gradation of settlers. -Chillicothe --Effects of Law of Evidence in Ohio. -Zanesville.- Spread of Catholic Doctrines.-Wheeling. -Pittsburg. -Journey to Philadelphia.-Stage-heroes and Stage-lovers

CHAPTER XXVII. -- Friendly Reception.- "immediate" and " gradual" Abolition.-Deplorable State of Liberia. -Amalgamation-mob versus the Blacks.-Outrages encouraged by the Press. Dr. Cox threatened with indelible "Blacking."-Episcopal Interference.-Indelicate Delicacy.-Heterodox Marriages. - History of James Forten.-Fair Mount Water-works. -Hospital. -Penitentiary.

CHAPTER XXVIII. -- Infant Schools.-State of Education in Pennsylvania.
Alms-house. --Increase of Pauperism. -Institution for poor Children.-House of Refuge.-Hackney-coachmen and Barbers in Philadelphia. - Quaker Schism.-Elias
Hicks.- Generous and affectionate Character of the Blacks

CHAPTER XXIX. -- Newhaven.-Cemetery.-Grave of Ashmun.-- "Potter's Field." --Yale College.-Hartford.-Christian Promise and Performance.-Liberty of Speech imprudent in the United States.-Second Edition of " Canterbury Tale."-Bishop of Charleston's Letter to Daniel O'Connell. -. Providence --Interview with Dr. Channing. -Philanthropy of the Unitarians, and Philanthropy of Moses Brown. -Contrasted Industry.

CHAPTER XXX. -- Boston. - Blind distinguishing Colors.-Judge Story's Charge. -  "Row" at Harvard University. - Nunnery burnt down by Boston Mob.-Brotherly Love between Protestants and Catholics mutual.-Lowell.- American Manufactures.-- School at Canaan.--Daniel Webster --  Students driven from Lane Seminary- Academical "Gag-laws "

CHAPTER XXXI. -- Dr. Tuckerman.-Dr. Follen.--House of Industry.-Pauperism in Massachusetts..-House of Correction.--Juvenile Offenders.-Reformatory School of Mr. Welles.-War between Patricians and Plebeians- "Thrice told Tale" of Canterbury. -System of "Strikes."-Travelling Incognito..Reception of George Thompson from England.-Progress of Abolition Doctrines.

CHAPTER XXXII. -- Plunder and Murder of the Blacks at Philadelphia.--Their Forbearance and Resignation.- How to prevent Riots.-Advice to the Victims: Results to be seen at Columbia.--John Randolph's Last Moments.-His Will disputed.

CHAPTER XXXIII. Slave of Royal Blood.-Free Blacks Wards to Jews.-Character of Slaves --Election Riots,-Loss of Life --Funeral Procession.- "Caucus" System --Arts of Demagogues.--Last Day at Philadelphia.--Treatment of English Subjects.--- Clandestine Marriage," and Conclusion

APPENDIX -- Extract from Will of William Gist -- Advertisements from Southern Papers, to buy/sell slaves, notices of runaways -- The "Confession of Nat Turner" as recorded by Thomas Gray.