Brief Biographies from the Jackson/Van Buren Era (E):
Eads, James Buchanan 1820
Inventor of the diving bell, which was used for salvaging from the many
steamboats that sunk in the Mississippi river, and made a fortune at this
pursuit from 1848-57. Later played an important part as an engineer in
the Civil War. Born in Lawrenceburg, Ind.
Earle, Pliny 1762 - 1832:
Manufacturer of machinery for carding cotton and wool. Father of Thomas
Earle, Thomas 1796 - 1849:
Editor and lawyer in Philadelphia, and Liberty Party candidate for the
vice presidency in 1840. Son of Pliny (1762-32).
Early, Jubal Anderson
1816 - 1894:
West Point class of 1837, but practice law afterwards from 1838, in Rocky
Mount VA. Opposed to succession, but like many others fought for the Confederacy,
and rose to lieutinent general. Stayed out of the U.S after the Civil War,
until 1869, and never took the oath of allegiance to the U.S. Born in Franklin
Eastman, Charles Gamage
Journalist and poet.
Eaton, Amos 1776 - 1842:
Wrote A Manual of Botany for the Northern States in 1817.
Eaton, Dorman Bridgman
1823 - 1899:
Advocate of civil service reform after the Civil War. Practiced law in
New York City from 1850-70.
Eaton, John Henry 1790 - 1856:
Andrew Jackson's first Secretary of War, whose appointment, along with
his marriage to Peggy O'Neille (or
O'Neale) Timberlake, helped cause the fall of a cabinet.
Eaton, Peggy 1796 - 1879:
(listed in the Concise DAB
as Margaret O'Neale; best known as Peggy Eaton, though only detractors
called her Peggy, according to her) An inkeeper's daughter, first married
to John Timberlake, purser of the ship Constitution,
who committed suicide. Shortly after that, she married John Eaton. She
was accused of promiscuousness and of having a miscarried pregnancy by
Eaton prior to their marriage, and was socially ostracized by the women
of official Washington, which helped bring about the fall of Andrew Jackson's
Eberle, John 1787 - 1838:
Medical doctor and writer. Born in Hagerstown, MD.
Eddy, Mary Morse Baker 1821-1910
Founded Church of Christian Science. Based her teachings partly on her
own healing through prayer. Born in Bow, NH. Married to George Washington
Glover from 1843 to 44, when he died. Married Daniel Patterson in 1853
but divorced in 1873. Finally married to Gilbert Eddy in 1877 (who died
Edmands, John 1820 - 1915:
A librarian who did much to improve the profession, including filing methodologies.
Edwards, John 1748 - 1837:
Planter and one of senatorial member of Kentucky's first delegation to
congress. Born in Stafford County, VA. Settled in Kentucky (still part
of Virginia) in 1780. Uncle of Ninian Edwards.
Edwards, Jonathan (1703 - 1758):
One of the most revered predecessors for devoutly religious 19th century
Congregationalists and Presbyterians.
He graduated Yale in 1720, and became minister at Northampton, MA, where
he began in 1729 as a colleague of his grandfather, Solomon Stoddard, and
later succeeded Stoddard.
Between 1734 and 1735, he led a revival that electified his parish and
spread into parst of Connecticut, then described it in a book, published
1737, called A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God in the
Conversion of Many Hundred Souls in Northampton, and the Neighboring Towns
and Villages. This prepared the way for the much more widespread revival
of George Whitefield from 1740-42.
This wave of revivalism started a controversy that was still raging
in the 1830s. In the first place, the old Congregationalists (those who
did not drift towards the Unitarianism that flourished around Boston),
and the Presbyterians, with their roots in Calvinism, would tend not to
ever say that "Minister X led a revival". A revival was not a scheduled
event, but a reviving, or rekindling of religion. It was God's work, though
perhaps operating through the minister. It was not the minister's job to
willfully make such a thing come about.
In particular, as certain revivalists seemed to be using techniques
of emotional manipulation to bring about fervent confessions of sin and
changes of behavior, many of the "Old School" ministers saw this as a bad
thing -- as failing to wait on the will of God. Also, for all their stress
on damnation, the early Calvinist faiths tended towards intellectuality.
Their ministers were the most educated men in the country. They believed
in convincing people of the truth, rather than appealing to peoples' emotions.
Consequently some people, as diverse as Charles
Grandison Finney, and Ralph
Waldo Emerson, heard the "Old School" sermons as empty of feeling.
It might be said that Unitarianism, which evolved out of Congregationalism
in the vicinity of Boston, had the intellectuality of Calvinism without
the fire (neither the fire of hell, nor the warmth of human emotion).
Finney went on to write a virtual handbook on how to conduct a revival,
and led a very powerful revival movement in the late 1820s and the 1830s.
Men like Edwards and, to some extent, Lyman
Beecher represented an intermediate stage in the church's philosophy
of revivals. They would do their best to communicate God's word, from day
to day. But, sensing a revival beginning to sweep over the congregation,
the young Beecher would redouble his efforts, perhaps preaching every night
of the week, and visiting those who were "anxious" or "under conviction",
to help them come to the light. Other ministers, gifted at dealing with
revivals, might be brought in as well.
Edwards' most special contribution to the controversy was A Treatise
Concerning Religious Affections, first published in 1746. In this work,
which began as a series of sermons in 1741-2, he presents a kind of aesthetics
of Christianity, and seeks to distinguish the religious state that is truly
a gift of God, from the untrue, which might be brought about by emotional
manipulation. In the 1830s, when controversy raged in the Presbyterian
church especially, over the new practices of men like Finney, both sides
would claim Edwards as their spokesmen.
Edwards died in Princeton, NJ very soon after taking over the presidency
of the College of New Jersey (later called Princeton).
He was commonly referred to in the 19th century as President Edwards.
He was the grandson of Solomon
Stoddard, father-in-law of the Aaron Burr
who succeeded him as president of Princeton,
Edwards, Ninian 1775 - 1833:
Governor of Illinois territory from 1809 - 1820. Senator from the state
from 1818-24, and state governor from 1826-30. Nephew of John Edwards.
Edwards, Ninian Wirt 1809
First Illinois superintendent of schools. Responsible for passsage in 1855
of the law establishing public schools in IL. Husband of the sister of
Mary Todd Lincoln. The Lincolns met in his house in Springfield.
Eielsen, Elling 1804-1883:
Norwegian-born Luthean religious leader, especially in the western parts
of the U.S., and missionary to the Indians. Came to U.S. in 1839.
Einhorn, David 1809 - 1879:
Bavarian-born Rabbi, and leader of reform Judaism in America.
Ellet, Charles 1810 - 1862:
Built advanced suspension bridges, including one over the Ohio at Wheeling
VA (later WV). Killed in action in Union naval action on the Mississippi.
Called the "Brunel of America".
Elliot, Charles Loring
1812 - 1868:
Elliot, Jesse Duncan 1782
Naval commander on the great lakes during the war of 1812.
Elliot, Stephen 1771 - 1830:
Botonist and cofounder of the Southern Review. Born in Beaufort,
Ellis, George 1814-1894:
Unitarian minister (at the Harvard Unitarian Church, Charlestown,
from 1850-69), editor of the Christian
Examiner from 1849-55; Harvard overseer 1850-1879, and prof. of
the Divinity School after 1857. Published A
Half Century of the Unitarian Controversy in 1857.
Attended the Boston Latin
School and the Round Hill School
in Northampton, and graduated Harvard
in 1833 and the Divinity School in 1836.
Elliotson, John 1791 - 1868:
Notable English practicioner of Mesmerism and phrenology.
Emerson, Charles Chauncy
1808 - 1836:
Ralph Waldo's brother. Grad Harvard
?1828? Was engaged to Elizabeth Hoar, and beginning to practice law in
when he suffered a swift decline from tuberculosis, and died.
Emerson, Edward Bliss
1805 - 1834:
Ralph Waldo's most troubled brother,
who suffered nervous breakdowns, and died of tuberculosis.
Emerson, George Barrell
1797 - 1881:
Active in many ways in education. Second cousin of R.W.
p86, which also notes he boarded for a while with E's mother). Conducted
a school for young ladies in Boston from 1823-1855. Helped organize the
Mechanics' Institute. Grad. Harvard
Emerson, Mary Moody 1774
R.W. Emerson's aunt, who never married.
Something of a religious mystic, or a kind of scholarly enthusiast, who
constantly corresponded with Emerson and his brothers, and was a strong
influence on him. Source: DAB
(for dates); and just about any book describing the early life of Emerson.
Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803 - 1882):
"Trancendentalist" essayist, lecturer, and poet.
Educated at Harvard to be a Congregationalist minister, like his father
(and grandfather?). He graduated in 1821, taught a few years, assisting
his brother William (here he met Elizabeth Peabody, to whom he said he
did not have to teach Greek because she already knew it) then spent
some time working on a farm in Newton trying to recoup his poor health.
In 1825, he entered the Harvard Divinity School. He continued to
struggled with ill health, but was "approbated to preach" Oct 1826 by the
"Middlesex association of Ministers(?)". He was a "supply" minister
(filling in where a regular minister was absent or there was none) in much
of the following 3 years, which took him to Concord, NH, where he met Ellen
Tucker, with whom he fell deeply in love.
In 1829, he became minister of the Second Church in Boston, thus standing
near the pinnacle of his profession, with a salary of $1,500 per year.
Emerson and Ellen lived only 15 months together. Her health was precarious
from the beginning, being afflicted with "consumption", or tuberculosus,
and she died Feb. 8, 1831. Emerson was deeply affected, but regained his
equilibrium somewhat and went on preaching.
He made diary entries, however, saying such things as "perhaps the best
way to be a minister is to resign the ministry", or deprecating his ability
as a minister, or railing against the division of religion into sects.
He came to disbelieve that Jesus ever meant to establish the Lords Supper
(i.e. communion) as a sacrament, and over this issue, finally broke with,
and resigned from his church.
Soon after this, he departed on a several-months tour of Europe, spending
the most time in Italy and Britain. He made the most contacts in Britain,
becoming a lifelong friend of Carlyle, a large influence on his later "transcendentalist"
* * * * * * * * ** * * * * **
Emerson, William 1769 - 1811:
Father of R.W. Emerson, and (Unitarian)
Pastor of First Church in Boston from 1799 until
Emerson, William 1801 - 1868:
Acc. to Richardson,
p35, he graduated Harvard 1818, toiled for several years to help put his
brothers through school, then his "great chance came in 1823, when he was
released from his labors to ..study theology at Gottingen (Germany). But
the coldly analytical and dispassionately historical world of German religious
studies soon undermined [his] faith in Christianity and derailed his ambition
to become a minister". Shortly afterwards, he went to New York, and was
successful there in law and business. Richardson's assesment of the family
view of William: "It was never said -- but always felt -- that the respectable,
established figure William cut represented a defeat, a taking refuge in
the standing order of things after his personal faith and force had failed."
Emmett, Daniel Decatur
1815 - 1904:
Organized the first "negro minstrel" troup, which played in 1842-3. Composed
the songs Dixie, Old Dan Tucker, and Here We Are, or Cross
English, Thomas Dun 1819
Lawyer, medical doctor, and writer.
Ennemoser, Joseph 1787 - 1854:
Early (Austrian) advocate of medical cures by hypnotism, or "animal magnetism".
Esbjorn, Lars Paul 1808 -
Swedish-born educator and leader of seceding Swedish Lutherans.
Espy, James Pollard 1785
Early scientific meteorologist. Called the "Storm King".
Evans, Oliver 1755 - 1819:
Invented and built first high-pressure steam engine. Called the "Watt of
America". Born near Newport, DE.
Evans, Thomas 1798 - 1868:
Quaker minister, who wrote on Quaker history and beliefs. Born in Philadelphia.
Evans, Thomas Wildberger
1823 - 1897:
Dentist who settled in Paris around 1847, and did much to improve reputation
of American dentistry.
Evarts, William Maxwell
1818 - 1901:
Secretary of the Union defence committee in the Civil War. Lawyer. Born
Eve, Paul Fitzsimons 1806
Surgeon and medical educator - prominent especially in the south. First
to perform a hysterectomy.
Everett, Alexander Hill
1790 - 1847:
Diplomat, and brother of Edward Everett. Born in Boston.
Everett, Edward 1794 - 1865:
Unitarian minister, member of congress (1825-35), and Gov. of Mass. from
1836-40. President of Harvard from 1846-9. Elected Whig Senator 1854-55
(resigned). Gave the "main" speech the day Lincoln gave the Gettysburg
Address. Born in Dorchester, MA
to a family
Younger brother of Alexander
Dir. of Am. Congress:
Graduated from Harvard University
in 1811; tutor in that university 1812-1814; studied theology and was ordained
pastor of the Brattle Street
Unitarian Church, Boston, in 1814; professor of Greek literature at
Harvard University 1815-1826; overseer of Harvard
University 1827-1847, 1849-1854, and 1862-1865; elected to the Nineteenth
and to the four succeeding Congresses (March 4, 1825-March 3, 1835); declined
to be a candidate for renomination in 1834; chairman, Committee on Foreign
Affairs (Twentieth Congress); Governor of Massachusetts 1836-1840; appointed
United States Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Great
Britain 1841-1845; declined a diplomatic commission to China in 1843; president
of Harvard University 1846-1849; appointed Secretary of State by President
Millard Fillmore to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Daniel
Webster and served from November 6, 1852, to March 3, 1853; elected
as a Whig to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1853, until
his resignation, effective June 1, 1854; unsuccessful candidate for vice
president of the United States in 1860 on the Constitutional-Union ticket;
died in Boston, Mass., January 15, 1865; interment in Mount Auburn Cemetery,
Everett, Edward. Edward Everett Papers. Edited by Frederick S. Allis, Jr.
Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1972. Microfilm. 54 reels and
guide; Reid, Ronald F. Edward Everett: Unionist Orator. New York: Greenwood
EVERETT, Horace, 1779-1851
EVERETT, Horace, a Representative from Vermont; born in Foxboro, Mass.,
July 17, 1779; was graduated from Brown University, Providence, R.I., in
1797; studied law; was admitted to the bar in 1801 and commenced practice
in Windsor, Vt.; prosecuting attorney for Windsor County 1813-1818; member
of the State house of representatives in 1819, 1820, 1822, 1824, and again
in 1834; delegate to the State constitutional convention in 1828; elected
to the Twenty-first, Twenty-second and Twenty-third Congresses, and reelected
as a Whig to the Twenty-fourth through Twenty-seventh Congresses (March
4, 1829-March 3, 1843); died in Windsor, Vt., January 30, 1851; interment
in Old South Burying Ground.
Dir. of Am. Congress.
Everett, Oliver, 1752 - 1802:
Father of Edward and Alexander
Ewell, Richard Stoddert
1817 - 1872:
Soldier, West Point class of 1840. In the U.S. army until the Civil War.
Rose to major general in the confederacy. Grandson of Benjamin Stoddert.
Ewing, Finis 1773 - 1841:
One of three who founded the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in 1810. Born
in Bedford County, VA.