BOOK NOTES:  Some books which might be of general interest to students of the "Early Republic" period -- If you find any worth purchasing after following one of these links, a portion will go to support of this web site:
The Greater Journey: Americans in Paris by David McCullough a "story of the adventurous American artists, writers, doctors, politicians, architects, and others of high aspiration who set off for Paris in the years between 1830 and 1900, ambitious to excel in their work."
The Price of Civilization: Reawakening American Virtue and Prosperity by Jeffrey Sachs.  From book description: "For more than three decades, Jeffrey D. Sachs has been at the forefront of international economic problem solving.  But Sachs turns his attention back home in The Price of Civilization, a book that is essential reading for every American. In a forceful, impassioned, and personal voice, he offers not only a searing and incisive diagnosis of our country’s economic ills but also an urgent call for Americans to restore the virtues of fairness, honesty, and foresight as the foundations of national prosperity.


Brief Biographies from the Jackson/Van Buren Era (E):


Eads, James Buchanan 1820 - 1887:

Inventor of the diving bell, which was used for salvaging from the many steamboats that sunk in the Mississippi river, and made a fortune at this pursuit from 1848-57. Later played an important part as an engineer in the Civil War. Born in Lawrenceburg, Ind.


Earle, Pliny 1762 - 1832:

Manufacturer of machinery for carding cotton and wool. Father of Thomas (1796-49).


Earle, Thomas 1796 - 1849:

Editor and lawyer in Philadelphia, and Liberty Party candidate for the vice presidency in 1840. Son of Pliny (1762-32).


Early, Jubal Anderson 1816 - 1894:

West Point class of 1837, but practice law afterwards from 1838, in Rocky Mount VA. Opposed to succession, but like many others fought for the Confederacy, and rose to lieutinent general. Stayed out of the U.S after the Civil War, until 1869, and never took the oath of allegiance to the U.S. Born in Franklin County, VA.


Eastman, Charles Gamage 1816-60:

Journalist and poet.


Eaton, Amos 1776 - 1842:

Wrote A Manual of Botany for the Northern States in 1817.


Eaton, Dorman Bridgman 1823 - 1899:

Advocate of civil service reform after the Civil War. Practiced law in New York City from 1850-70.


Eaton, John Henry 1790 - 1856:

Andrew Jackson's first Secretary of War, whose appointment, along with his marriage to Peggy O'Neille (or O'Neale) Timberlake, helped cause the fall of a cabinet.


Eaton, Peggy 1796 - 1879:

(listed in the Concise DAB as Margaret O'Neale; best known as Peggy Eaton, though only detractors called her Peggy, according to her) An inkeeper's daughter, first married to John Timberlake, purser of the ship Constitution, who committed suicide. Shortly after that, she married John Eaton. She was accused of promiscuousness and of having a miscarried pregnancy by Eaton prior to their marriage, and was socially ostracized by the women of official Washington, which helped bring about the fall of Andrew Jackson's first cabinet.


Eberle, John 1787 - 1838:

Medical doctor and writer. Born in Hagerstown, MD.


Eddy, Mary Morse Baker 1821-1910

Founded Church of Christian Science. Based her teachings partly on her own healing through prayer. Born in Bow, NH. Married to George Washington Glover from 1843 to 44, when he died. Married Daniel Patterson in 1853 but divorced in 1873. Finally married to Gilbert Eddy in 1877 (who died in 1882).


Edmands, John 1820 - 1915:

A librarian who did much to improve the profession, including filing methodologies.


Edwards, John 1748 - 1837:

Planter and one of senatorial member of Kentucky's first delegation to congress. Born in Stafford County, VA. Settled in Kentucky (still part of Virginia) in 1780. Uncle of Ninian Edwards.


Edwards, Jonathan (1703 - 1758):

One of the most revered predecessors for devoutly religious 19th century Congregationalists and Presbyterians.

He graduated Yale in 1720, and became minister at Northampton, MA, where he began in 1729 as a colleague of his grandfather, Solomon Stoddard, and later succeeded Stoddard.

Between 1734 and 1735, he led a revival that electified his parish and spread into parst of Connecticut, then described it in a book, published 1737, called A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God in the Conversion of Many Hundred Souls in Northampton, and the Neighboring Towns and Villages. This prepared the way for the much more widespread revival of George Whitefield from 1740-42.

This wave of revivalism started a controversy that was still raging in the 1830s. In the first place, the old Congregationalists (those who did not drift towards the Unitarianism that flourished around Boston), and the Presbyterians, with their roots in Calvinism, would tend not to ever say that "Minister X led a revival". A revival was not a scheduled event, but a reviving, or rekindling of religion. It was God's work, though perhaps operating through the minister. It was not the minister's job to willfully make such a thing come about.

In particular, as certain revivalists seemed to be using techniques of emotional manipulation to bring about fervent confessions of sin and changes of behavior, many of the "Old School" ministers saw this as a bad thing -- as failing to wait on the will of God. Also, for all their stress on damnation, the early Calvinist faiths tended towards intellectuality. Their ministers were the most educated men in the country. They believed in convincing people of the truth, rather than appealing to peoples' emotions. Consequently some people, as diverse as Charles Grandison Finney, and Ralph Waldo Emerson, heard the "Old School" sermons as empty of feeling. It might be said that Unitarianism, which evolved out of Congregationalism in the vicinity of Boston, had the intellectuality of Calvinism without the fire (neither the fire of hell, nor the warmth of human emotion).

Finney went on to write a virtual handbook on how to conduct a revival, and led a very powerful revival movement in the late 1820s and the 1830s. Men like Edwards and, to some extent, Lyman Beecher represented an intermediate stage in the church's philosophy of revivals. They would do their best to communicate God's word, from day to day. But, sensing a revival beginning to sweep over the congregation, the young Beecher would redouble his efforts, perhaps preaching every night of the week, and visiting those who were "anxious" or "under conviction", to help them come to the light. Other ministers, gifted at dealing with revivals, might be brought in as well.

Edwards' most special contribution to the controversy was A Treatise Concerning Religious Affections, first published in 1746. In this work, which began as a series of sermons in 1741-2, he presents a kind of aesthetics of Christianity, and seeks to distinguish the religious state that is truly a gift of God, from the untrue, which might be brought about by emotional manipulation. In the 1830s, when controversy raged in the Presbyterian church especially, over the new practices of men like Finney, both sides would claim Edwards as their spokesmen.

Edwards died in Princeton, NJ very soon after taking over the presidency of the College of New Jersey (later called Princeton). He was commonly referred to in the 19th century as President Edwards.

He was the grandson of Solomon Stoddard, father-in-law of the Aaron Burr who succeeded him as president of Princeton,


Edwards, Ninian 1775 - 1833:

Governor of Illinois territory from 1809 - 1820. Senator from the state from 1818-24, and state governor from 1826-30. Nephew of John Edwards.


Edwards, Ninian Wirt 1809 - 1889:

First Illinois superintendent of schools. Responsible for passsage in 1855 of the law establishing public schools in IL. Husband of the sister of Mary Todd Lincoln. The Lincolns met in his house in Springfield.


Eielsen, Elling 1804-1883:

Norwegian-born Luthean religious leader, especially in the western parts of the U.S., and missionary to the Indians. Came to U.S. in 1839.


Einhorn, David 1809 - 1879:

Bavarian-born Rabbi, and leader of reform Judaism in America.


Ellet, Charles 1810 - 1862:

Built advanced suspension bridges, including one over the Ohio at Wheeling VA (later WV). Killed in action in Union naval action on the Mississippi. Called the "Brunel of America".


Elliot, Charles Loring 1812 - 1868:

Portrait painter.


Elliot, Jesse Duncan 1782 - 1845:

Naval commander on the great lakes during the war of 1812.


Elliot, Stephen 1771 - 1830:

Botonist and cofounder of the Southern Review. Born in Beaufort, SC.


Ellis, George 1814-1894:

b.8/8,d.12/20
Unitarian minister (at the Harvard Unitarian Church, Charlestown, from 1850-69), editor of the Christian Examiner from 1849-55; Harvard overseer 1850-1879, and prof. of the Divinity School after 1857. Published A Half Century of the Unitarian Controversy in 1857.

Attended the Boston Latin School and the Round Hill School in Northampton, and graduated Harvard in 1833 and the Divinity School in 1836.

(Source: DAB)


Elliotson, John 1791 - 1868:

Notable English practicioner of Mesmerism and phrenology.


Emerson, Charles Chauncy 1808 - 1836:

Ralph Waldo's brother. Grad Harvard ?1828? Was engaged to Elizabeth Hoar, and beginning to practice law in Concord when he suffered a swift decline from tuberculosis, and died.


Emerson, Edward Bliss 1805 - 1834:

Ralph Waldo's most troubled brother, who suffered nervous breakdowns, and died of tuberculosis.


Emerson, George Barrell 1797 - 1881:

Active in many ways in education. Second cousin of R.W. Emerson (Rusk p86, which also notes he boarded for a while with E's mother). Conducted a school for young ladies in Boston from 1823-1855. Helped organize the Boston Mechanics' Institute. Grad. Harvard 1817.


Emerson, Mary Moody 1774 - 1863:

R.W. Emerson's aunt, who never married. Something of a religious mystic, or a kind of scholarly enthusiast, who constantly corresponded with Emerson and his brothers, and was a strong influence on him. Source: DAB (for dates); and just about any book describing the early life of Emerson.


Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803 - 1882):

"Trancendentalist" essayist, lecturer, and poet.

Educated at Harvard to be a Congregationalist minister, like his father (and grandfather?).

After some schoolteaching, and struggles with poor health, he married Ellen Tucker, with whom he was deeply in love, and became minister of the Second Church in Boston, thus standing near the pinnacle of his profession, with a salary of $1,500 per year. Emerson and Ellen lived only 15 months together. Her health was precarious from the beginning, being afflicted with "consumption", or tuberculosus, and she died Feb. 8, 1831. Emerson was deeply affected, but regained his equilibrium somewhat and went on preaching.

He made diary entries, however, saying such things as "perhaps the best way to be a minister is to resign the ministry", or deprecating his ability as a minister, or railing against the division of religion into sects. He came to disbelieve that Jesus ever meant to establish the Lords Supper (i.e. communion) as a sacrament, and over this issue, finally broke with, and resigned from his church.

Soon after this, he departed on a several-months tour of Europe, spending the most time in Italy and Britain. He made the most contacts in Britain, becoming a lifelong friend of Carlyle, a large influence on his later "transcendentalist" philosophy.

* * * * * * * * ** * * * * **


Emerson, William 1769 - 1811:

Father of R.W. Emerson, and (Unitarian) Pastor of First Church in Boston from 1799 until his death.


Emerson, William 1801 - 1868:

Acc. to Richardson, Emerson, p35, he graduated Harvard 1818, toiled for several years to help put his brothers through school, then his "great chance came in 1823, when he was released from his labors to ..study theology at Gottingen (Germany). But the coldly analytical and dispassionately historical world of German religious studies soon undermined [his] faith in Christianity and derailed his ambition to become a minister". Shortly afterwards, he went to New York, and was successful there in law and business. Richardson's assesment of the family view of William: "It was never said -- but always felt -- that the respectable, established figure William cut represented a defeat, a taking refuge in the standing order of things after his personal faith and force had failed."


Emmett, Daniel Decatur 1815 - 1904:

Organized the first "negro minstrel" troup, which played in 1842-3. Composed the songs Dixie, Old Dan Tucker, and Here We Are, or Cross ober Jordan.


English, Thomas Dun 1819 - 1902

Lawyer, medical doctor, and writer.


Ennemoser, Joseph 1787 - 1854:

Early (Austrian) advocate of medical cures by hypnotism, or "animal magnetism".


Esbjorn, Lars Paul 1808 - 1870:

Swedish-born educator and leader of seceding Swedish Lutherans.


Espy, James Pollard 1785 - 1860:

Early scientific meteorologist. Called the "Storm King".


Evans, Oliver 1755 - 1819:

Invented and built first high-pressure steam engine. Called the "Watt of America". Born near Newport, DE.


Evans, Thomas 1798 - 1868:

Quaker minister, who wrote on Quaker history and beliefs. Born in Philadelphia.


Evans, Thomas Wildberger 1823 - 1897:

Dentist who settled in Paris around 1847, and did much to improve reputation of American dentistry.


Evarts, William Maxwell 1818 - 1901:

Secretary of the Union defence committee in the Civil War. Lawyer. Born in Boston.


Eve, Paul Fitzsimons 1806 - 1877:

Surgeon and medical educator - prominent especially in the south. First to perform a hysterectomy.


Everett, Alexander Hill 1790 - 1847:

Diplomat, and brother of Edward Everett. Born in Boston.


Everett, Edward 1794 - 1865:

Unitarian minister, member of congress (1825-35), and Gov. of Mass. from 1836-40. President of Harvard from 1846-9. Elected Whig Senator 1854-55 (resigned). Gave the "main" speech the day Lincoln gave the Gettysburg Address. Born in Dorchester, MA to a family

Younger brother of Alexander Everett.

Sources: DAB and Frothingham, Edward Everett.

From Biog. Dir. of Am. Congress:


EVERETT, Horace, 1779-1851

EVERETT, Horace, a Representative from Vermont; born in Foxboro, Mass., July 17, 1779; was graduated from Brown University, Providence, R.I., in 1797; studied law; was admitted to the bar in 1801 and commenced practice in Windsor, Vt.; prosecuting attorney for Windsor County 1813-1818; member of the State house of representatives in 1819, 1820, 1822, 1824, and again in 1834; delegate to the State constitutional convention in 1828; elected to the Twenty-first, Twenty-second and Twenty-third Congresses, and reelected as a Whig to the Twenty-fourth through Twenty-seventh Congresses (March 4, 1829-March 3, 1843); died in Windsor, Vt., January 30, 1851; interment in Old South Burying Ground.

Source: Biog. Dir. of Am. Congress.


Everett, Oliver, 1752 - 1802:

Father of Edward and Alexander Everett.


Ewell, Richard Stoddert 1817 - 1872:

Soldier, West Point class of 1840. In the U.S. army until the Civil War. Rose to major general in the confederacy. Grandson of Benjamin Stoddert.


Ewing, Finis 1773 - 1841:

One of three who founded the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in 1810. Born in Bedford County, VA.


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