Brief Biographies from the Jackson/Van Buren Era (L):
Ladd, William 1778 - 1841:
New Hampshire sea captain and farmer, and founder of the American
Peace Society in 1828. Born in Exeter;
died in Portsmouth.
Wrote Essay on a Congress of Nations in 1840.
Lafayette, Marquis de
1757 - 1834:
(full name Lafayette, Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis
de per Concise DAB
Lamar, Mirabeau Buonaparte
1798 - 1859:
Followed Sam Houston as president of Texas. Worked for U.S.' annexation
Lamon, Ward Hill 1828 - 1893:
Associate of Lincoln on the circuit corts of Illinois. Accompanied Lincoln
to Washington, where he served as a bodyguard (but absent the night Lincoln
was shot - on a mission to Richmond). Born in Frederick County VA.
Lampson, Sir Curtis
Miranda 1806 - 1885:
Vermont-born English baronet important to the laying of the Transatlantic
Lancaster, Joseph 1778 - 1838:
English Quaker who developed the system of education called "Lancastrian".
Resettled in U.S. after failing to get widespread adaptation in England.
It did for a while become very popular in America, especially among reformers.
Lane, Henry 1811 - 1881:
Indianan who helped form the Republican Party.
Lane, John ???:
Blacksmith who invented the moldbord plow; a plow with steel plowshares,
prior to the Deere plow.
Lane, Joseph 1801 - 1881:
Governer of Oregon Terr. 1849 - 50 (got the job that Lincoln didn't want).
Territorial rep. in Congress 1851-9. Senator 1859-61. running mate of Breckinridge
in the 4-way 1860 election.
Lorraine 1810 - 1895:
Scientific beekeeper who did much to improve the profession.
Larcom, Lucy 1824-93:
Millworker at Lowell MA from 1835-46; schoolteacher in Illinois 1846-52;
Returned to New England and taught at Wheaton College from 1854-62. Author
who collaborated part of the time with Whittier.
Latrobe, Benjamin Henry
1764 - 1820:
Prominent architect who practiced in Philadelphia and Washington DC.
Lawrence, William 1783 - 1848:
Lawrence, William Beach
1800 - 1881:
Lieut. Gov Rhode Island in 1851 and acting Gov in 1852. Writer on international
Lea, Isaac 1792 - 1886:
zoologist; studied freshwater mollusks. Also a publisher and writer.
LECOMPTE, Joseph, 1797-1851
Jacksonian representative from Kentucky from 1825-33; born in Woodford
County, near the town of Georgetown, Scott County, Ky.; moved to Henry
County with his parents, who settled in Lecomptes Bottom on the Kentucky
River; attended the common schools; engaged in agricultural pursuits; during
the War of 1812 served with the Kentucky Riflemen in the Battle of New
Orleans; member of the State house of representatives in 1819, 1822, 1838,
1839, and 1844; served as a major in the State militia; in Congress from
March 4, 1825-March 3, 1833; not a candidate for renomination in 1832;
resumed agricultural pursuits; member of the State constitutional convention
in 1850; died in Henry County April 25, 1851.
Dir. of Am. Congress.
Lee, Henry 1756 - 1818
Lee, Jason 1803 - 1845: Methodist missionary in Oregon territory from
1834. Helped found the Oregon Institute which later was called Willamette
Lee, Robert Edward 1807 -
Leeser, Isaac 1806 - 1869:
Prussion-born Jewish Rabbi who came to U.S. in 1824; developed congregations
in Philadephia between 1829 and his death. Founded The Occident and
American Jewish Advocate from 1843 till year of his death. Founded
Maimonides College in 1868.
Legare, Hugh Swinton 1797
Atorney general of the U.S from 1841-3; briefly was acting secy of state.
Born in Charleston, SC.
Leigh, Benjamin Watkins
1781 - 1849:
Practiced law in Petersburg,
VA from 1802-11 before moving to Richmond.
Dominated the 1829-30 Virginia convention as the "representative of the
wealthy, slave-holding, and conservative east". Sent to Charleston,
SC in early Feb. 1833 to try to mediate
the nullification crisis. U.S. Senator 1834-6. Opposed to Andrew Jackson's
nationalism and his attack on the Bank of the United States. His sense
of honor led him to refuse taking an oath against duelling which was mandatory
for a Virginia lawyer, and successfully uphold his refusal before the state
supreme court, and also to refuse to vote for the expunging resolution
proposed by Benton which "expunged"
the fierce castigation of Jackson by the Senate in 1834. (Source: DAB,
to Civil War, 290)
Lenox, James 1800 - 1880:
Established and benefitted the Lenox Library. published Shakespeare's works,
and other works. Born in New York.
Leslie, Frank 1821 - 1880.
A prominent periodical publisher, especially of the sort of heavily illustrated
magazines that started to appear in the 1850s. Changed name from Henry
Lesueur, Charles Alexandre
1778 - 1846 :
Artist and naturalist. Accompanied William
Maclure to the U.S. Teacher and engraver in Philadelphia.
Taught drawing at New Harmony
from 1826 - ?, and made engravings from Thomas
Say's (entomologist) drawings. From then til 1837, when he returned
to France, he made extensive studies of the wildlife, especially fish,
of the Mississippi valley.
Lewis, Meriwether 1774 - 1809:
Lewis, Morgan: 1754 - 1844:
Revolutionary war officer and later (1804-7) Governor of New York.
Lewis, Tayler 1802-1877:
Classical and biblical scholar.
Lick, James 1796 - 1876:
Financier in South America, and later in California, who in 1874 bequeathed
$700,000 for "a powerful telescope, superior to and more powerful than
any telescope ever yet made". The Lick observatory was completed and given
to the University of California in 1888.
Lieber, Francis 1800 - 1872:
German-born teacher and political scientist. Born in Berlin, he spent
his early years fighting under Napolean briefly (at age 15), fighting for
Greek independence, and other political activities that eventually made
him flee Germany, but nevertheless, received a Ph.D. at Jena, and later
(1822? - 1824) studied mathematics in Berlin. After 6 months imprisonment
(which was supposed to have been for life) for his political activities,
he fled, and eventually "landed [in Boston] in June 1827 to take charge
of a gymnasium.
In 1829-33, edited and partly wrote the Encyclopaedia Americana,
in 13 volumes, an immediate success. "many distinguished Americans contributed
to its pages and L. made acquaintances which were mutually helpful throughout
He seems to have been very energetic socially as he appears in so many
people's lives -- from being a good friend of Charles
Sumner, to dining with James
Henry Hammond. de
Tocqueville carried away a strong impression of Lieber, and Lieber,
in turn, translated de Tocqueville's On the Penitentiary System in the
Lincoln, Abraham (Feb 12, 1809 - Apr. 15,
Born in Elizabethtown, KY to Thomas and Nancy Lincoln. They moved to the
new state of Indiana in 1816. Two years later, Nancy Lincoln died, apparently
of a common illness in that part of the country, which was called "the
milk sick", a kind of poisoning caused by free-ranging cows eating certain
poisonous plants. The cows would sicken and die, and so, often would those
of the family who had been consuming milk or dairy products (Warren,
Youth). Thomas Lincoln, within the year, married Sarah Bush Lincoln,
a widow whose married name had been Johnston. She added her children to
the Lincoln family. In later years, Abraham Lincoln had much warmer feelings
towards his stepmother than towards his father.
In early 1830, the family relocated to Illinois. Lincoln had gotten
to this point a very meagre education, probably well under a year spent
in classrooms all told, but had read every book he could get his hands
on, and shown particular interest in the law. He had also transported a
raft full of goods to market in New Orleans for an Indiana merchant (and
been responsible for the safety of the man's son), towards the end of their
In Illinois, Lincoln spent one more year with his family, during which
he again took a raftload of goods to New Orleans, and returned by riverboad
(Raftmen, often called, indiscriminately, 'Kaintucks' - being presumed
to be from Kentucky - rode on the decks of the steamers, and jumped out
at refueling points to load wood - see Trollope,
beginning of Ch III). Denton Offut, whose goods Lincoln had rafted down
to New Orleans, promised to make Lincoln a grocer in the town of New
Salem, on the Sangamon River.
Offut mostly gave Lincoln false hopes, but Lincoln did establish himself
as a grocer, and won the respect of locals for his honesty, physical strength,
and, his willingness to go to great lengths to improve his learning. At
one point, he attended a school full of children to learn some grammar.
When an opportunity came to get a job as a surveyer, he studied mathematics
with the local schoolmaster.
In 1832, at age 23, he ran for the state legislature, made a good showing,
but was defeated. Between his announced candidacy and the election, he
served in the militia in the Blackhawk war. He never saw any fighting,
but did run across some men recently killed by Indians. He was elected
captain, which in later life he claimed made him as happy as any honor
before or since.
In 1834 he succeeded in getting elected to the state legislature. By
1837, he was recognized as a major Whig power there, and had been a driving
force in getting the capitol moved from Vandalia
to the more populous and promising Springfield,
near New Salem. Lincoln planned to move to
Springfield to set up a law practice.
THAT'S ALL FOR NOW. MORE LATER.
Lincoln, Enoch 1788-1829:
Son of Levi Lincoln [1749-1820] and brother of Levi Lincoln [1782-1868];
a Representative from Massachusetts (District of Maine) and the state of
Maine, and from 1826-29, governor of Maine. Born in Worcester, Mass., December
28, 1788; was graduated from Harvard University in 1807; studied law; was
admitted to the bar and commenced the practice of his profession in Salem,
Mass., in 1811; United States district attorney 1815-1818; moved to Paris,
Maine (then a district of Massachusetts), in 1819 and continued the practice
of law; elected as a Republican to the Fifteenth Congress to fill the vacancy
caused by the resignation of Albion K. Parris; reelected to the Sixteenth
Congress and served from November 4, 1818, to March 3, 1821; upon the admission
of Maine as a State was elected to the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth
Congresses and served from March 4, 1821, until his resignation in 1826;
Governor of Maine from 1827 until his death; had declined to be a candidate
for renomination; died in Augusta, Kennebec County, Maine, on October 8,
1829; interment in a mausoleum in the State Park.
Above from Biographical Directory
of the U.S. Congress.
Lincoln, Levi, 1782-1868
Son of Levi Lincoln [1749-1820] and brother of Enoch Lincoln; a Representative
from Massachusetts; born in Worcester, Mass., October 25, 1782; attended
Leicester Academy, Leicester, Mass., and was graduated from Harvard University
in 1802; studied law; was admitted to the bar and commenced the practice
of his profession at Worcester in 1805; served in the State senate in 1812
and 1813; member of the State house of representatives 1814-1822 and served
as speaker in 1822; delegate to the State constitutional convention in
1820; elected Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts in 1823; appointed associate
justice of the State supreme court in 1824; Governor of Massachusetts 1825-1834;
declined reelection; elected as an Anti-Jacksonian to the Twenty-third
Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of John Davis; reelected
as a Whig to the Twenty-fourth and to the three succeeding Congresses and
served from February 17, 1834, to March 16, 1841, when he resigned; chairman,
Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds (Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth
Congresses); collector of the port of Boston, by appointment of President
Harrison, 1841-1843; served in the State senate in 1844 and 1845 and was
president of that body in the latter year; first mayor of Worcester in
1848; presidential elector on the Republican ticket in 1864; died in Worcester,
Worcester County, Mass., May 29, 1868; interment in the Rural Cemetery.
Above from Biographical Directory
of the U.S. Congress.
Linder, Usher F. (???)
Described in Thomas' Lincoln (p60) as a "tall, loose-jointed lawyer
from Coles County", IL. Linder was in the Illinois legislature fighting
for the other side in 1836-7 when Lincoln and friends got the state capitol
moved to Vandalia. Coles County is in eastern Illinois, though not on the
border, and just slightly within the southern half of the state; just a
little closer to Vandalia than to Springfield.
Later that year, Linder is described in Gentlemen
of Property and Standing, as having a very major part in the raucous
opposition to Elijah P. Lovejoy's
abolition convention, which ended in such a pitch of mob frenzy that one
of the rioters, and Lovejoy, were dead at the end of it.
There are several mentions of Linder in Carl Sandburg's Abraham
Lincoln. As two riders of the early Illinois circuit court, they
would have appeared, as a team or opposed to each other, in numerous trials.
Linton, William James
1812 - 1897:
English wood engraver came to U.S. in 1866. Write a Life of Pain.
Started a printing company, J.B. Lippincott, & Co., in Phila. in 1836;
published some notable reference works. Born in Juliustown, NJ.
Livermore, Arthur 1766 - 1853:
Son of Samuel Livermore and brother of Edward St. Loe Livermore.
a Representative from New Hampshire; born in Londonderry,
Rockingham County, N.H., July 29, 1766; received classical instruction
from his parents; studied law; was admitted to the bar and commenced practice
in Concord in 1792; moved to Chester, N.H., the following year; member
of the State house of representatives in 1794 and 1795; solicitor for Rockingham
County 1796-1798; moved to Holderness, N.H., in 1798; associate justice
of the superior court 1798-1809 and chief justice 1809-1813; presidential
elector on the Federalist ticket in 1800; associate justice of the State
supreme court 1813-1816; elected as a Republican to the Fifteenth and Sixteenth
Congresses (March 4, 1817-March 3, 1821); chairman, Committee on the Post
Office and Post Roads (Fifteenth and Sixteenth Congresses), Committee on
Expenditures in the Post Office Department (Sixteenth Congress); unsuccessful
candidate for reelection in 1822 to the Seventeenth Congress; served in
the State senate in 1821 and 1822; judge of probate for Grafton County
in 1822 and 1823; elected to the Eighteenth Congress (March 4, 1823-March
3, 1825); was not a candidate for renomination in 1824; chief justice of
the court of common pleas 1825-1832; moved to Campton in 1827; trustee
of Holmes Plymouth Academy 1808-1826; died in Campton, N.H., July 1, 1853;
interment in Trinity Churchyard, Holderness, N.H.
Livingston, Edward 1764 -
Andrew Jackson's 2nd secy of state. Born in Columbia, NY same as Martin
Locke, John 1632 - 1704:
Locke, John 1792 - 1856:
Geologist, scientist, and inventor of tools for surveyers.
Locke, Richard Adams 1800
English-born journalist, who came to U.S. in 1832; foisted the "Moon Hoax"
on the american public in the NY Sun in 1835.
Logan, Stephen Trigg 1800
Long, Crawford Williamson
1815 - 1878:
Surgeon and physician; another claimant to be first to use ether as an
anaesthetic. Performed 8 such operations between 1842 - 6, and wrote about
it in December 1849.
Long, James 1873 - 1822:
Formed an early abortive "Republic of Texas" in 1819. Captured and killed
Long, Stephen Harriman
1784 - 1864:
Explorer of the upper Mississippi in 1817, and later, the northern boundary
of the U.S.
Longacre, James Barton
1784 - 1869:
Important american engraver. Born in Delaware County, PA.
Wadsworth 1807 - 1882:
Longfellow, Stephen 1776
Father of Henry
Wadsworth Longfellow, and Representative from Maine 1823-25
Born in Gorham, Cumberland County, Maine (then a district of Massachusetts),
June 23, 1775; was graduated from Harvard University in 1798; studied law;
was admitted to the bar in 1801 and commenced practice in Portland,
Maine; member of the general court of Massachusetts in 1814 and 1815;
belonged to the Federalist Party and was a delegate to the Hartford convention
in 1814 and 1815; Federalist presidential elector in 1816; elected to the
Eighteenth Congress (March 4, 1823-March 3, 1825); was not a candidate
for renomination in 1824; resumed the practice of his profession; member
of the State house of representatives in 1826; overseer of Bowdoin
College, Brunswick, Maine, 1811-1817; a trustee of Bowdoin College
1817-1836; president of the Maine Historical Society in 1834; died in Portland,
Maine, August 2, 1849.
Loomis, Elias 1811 - 1889:
Mathematician astronomer. Taught at Western Reserve College from 1837-44,
and University of the City of New York from 1844-7 and 1849-60. Later at
Loomis, Mahlon 1826- 1886:
Invented a method of making false teeth in 1854. Practiced dentestry, (in
Philadelphia) but later worked on developing a wireless telegraph. Born
in Oppenheim, NY.
Lord, Nathan 1792 - 1870:
Congregational minister; president of Dartmouth from 1828 - 63.
Loring, Ellis Gray 1803 -
Abolitionist and prominent Boston lawyer. Born in Boston; in the Harvard
Class of 1823, but left "in May 1823, when members of his class were dismissed
for resistance to college discipline". Married Louisa Gilman
Was one of the "little band who assembled" on January 1, 1831, to consider
organizing the New England Anti-Slavery Society
(says DAB, citing
of 7/4/58 - obituary of EGL? --, but Stewart,
Warriors says it was founded in January 1832, which seems more
likely). He remained a strong, if usually somewhat quiet, abolitionist.
His house was a center of anti-slavery activity (noted by Harriet
Martineau, says DAB);
he sheltered fugitive slaves, and financially, helped keep the Liberator
Lovejoy, Elijah Parish (Nov. 9, 1802 -
Nov. 7, 1837):
Born in Albion Maine. In 1833, he
was licensed to preach after a course in theological study at Princeton
Rather than preach, he edited a religious newspaper in St. Louis MO,
which was anti-Catholic, in one of the most Catholic cities in America
(having been part of French Territory until recently). His paper, the Observer,
became increasingly anti-slavery, which lead to his near lynching or at
least tarring and feathering in St. Louis. After his printing press was
destroyed there, and after some other harrowing experiences, he moved with
his family to Alton IL.
In Alton, his press was again destroyed twice.
Defiantly, he set out to organize an abolitionist conference in Illinois.
Anti-abolitionist excitement rose to a fever pitch. On November 7, a new
printing press was received and stored in a secure stone warehouse. It
was clear that a mob meant to break in and destroy this third press that
had come to Alton. Lovejoy and friends, including his 26 year old brother
went armed to defent the press. Shots were fired on both sides, and one
of the attackers was killed. When Lovejoy appeared in a doorway due to
an apparent lull in the fight, he received a volley of shots, and was killed.
Lovejoy, Owen(Jan. 6, 1811 - Mar. 25, 1864):
Brother of Elijah P. Lovejoy,and like him, committed to abolition. Became
a Congregational minister and later, a congressman.
Graduated Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine, in 1832; studied law
but never practiced; studied theology; joined his brother in Alton Illinois
in 1836, and was with him when he was killed by a mob while defending his
Owen served as pastor of the Congregational Church from 1839-1856. He
was a member of U.S. House of Representatives from 1857 til his death in
Lowell, James Russell
1819 - 1891:
Lowell, John 1769 - 1840:
Traill Spence 1816 - 1891:
Lundy, Benjamin 1789 - 1839:
Lynds, Elam 1784 - 1855:
Prison administrator, and regarded by some as the creator of the "Auburn
system, with its solitary confinement of prisoners during the night, its
labor in silence in the common workshops during the day, and its lockstep.
... He was a great believer in the lash, which he considered the least
harmful and the most efficient of all disciplinary means." An excerpt from
an interview with him is in Pierson,