At this time, his wife returned to acting, and he went onto the stage as well. His first successes were not in acting proper, but in "character impersonations". Over time, his acting skills enabled him to play, with great success, roles like Falstaff, Rip Van Winkle, Col. Nimrod Wildfire of James K. Paulding's Lion of the West (patterned after Davy Crockett).
Democratic Representative 1843-45; Antislavery senator 1847-1853; 1855-1865 Party: Independent Democrat; Free Soil; Opposition; Republican
Born in Rochester, Strafford County, N.H., March 31, 1806; received preparatory education at Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, N.H.; graduated from Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine, in 1827; studied law; was admitted to the bar in 1830 and commenced practice in Dover, N.H.; member, State house of representatives 1832; appointed by President Andrew Jackson United States attorney in 1834, and was removed by President John Tyler in 1841; elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-eighth Congress (March 4, 1843-March 3, 1845); refused to vote for the annexation of Texas, although instructed to do so by the State legislature, which then revoked his renomination; elected as a Free Soil candidate to the United States Senate in 1846 and served from March 4, 1847, to March 3, 1853; unsuccessful candidate for President of the United States on the Free-Soil ticket in 1852; again elected to the Senate in 1855 to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Charles G. Atherton; reelected in 1859 and served from July 30, 1855, to March 3, 1865; chairman, Committee on Naval Affairs (Thirty-seventh and Thirty-eighth Congresses), Committee on the District of Columbia (Thirty-eighth Congress); appointed Minister to Spain 1865-1869; returned to Dover, N.H., and died there November 19, 1873; interment in Pine Hill Cemetery.
DAB; Lowden, Lucy. ‘ ‘Black as Ink - Bitter as Hell’: John P. Hale’s Mutiny in New Hampshire.’ Historical New Hampshire 27 (Spring 1972): 27-50; Sewell, Richard H. John P. Hale and the Politics of Abolition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965.
Representative from New Hampshire; born in Portsmouth, N.H., August 6, 1765; attended the public schools; was a merchant and shipowner; served in the State senate 1796-1800; member of the Governor’s council 1803-1805; elected as a Federalist to the Eleventh Congress (March 4, 1809-March 3, 1811); elected to the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Congresses (March 4, 1813-March 3, 1817); died in Dover, N.H., November 8, 1848; interment in Pine Hill Cemetery.
Edited the Illinois Intelligencer from 1829-32; in 1830, established the Illinois Monthly Magazine, which he continued in Cincinnati as the Western Monthly Magazine.
Source: Dictionary of American Biography.
Hamilton was frequently of service to Van Buren and Andrew Jackson.
As governor of SC from 1829-1832, he advocated nullification of the tariff, and presided over the Nullification Conference in 1832. Appointed Brigadier General commanding SC Troops. He stepped down from the governorship so that a man of more moderate reputation would be running the state when the nullification conflict reached its crisis, complete with military threats by Andrew Jackson.
No relation, so far as I know, with Alexander Hamilton.
He pushed his oldest son, James Henry, hard, regarding him as a genius.
Silhouette of E.H., p 25, Faust.
Source: Faust, Hammond, mostly pp 9-39.
Had a law practice in Columbia starting in late 1820s. 1/29/30 - established the Southern Times, a pro-nullification newspaper; ran for delegate to the Nullification Convention. Elected a Colonel during the nullification excitement. Elected to Congress 1834. Failed in run for gov. in 1840; made General of Militia 1841; was elected gov. 1842 and served 2 terms. Would have run for Senator in 1846 but for a threat by a relative to disclose some strange activities he was supposed to have had with his nieces. Elected to Senate 1857, and served until he resigned on Lincoln's election. Supported the Confederacy although he was a strong critic of Jefferson Davis.
Son of Elisha Hammond.
He served one month, from March 4, 1841 - April 4, 1841.
Harrison was a hero of the western part of the War of 1812, defeating Tecumseh in the battle of Tippecanoe. From 1816-19 he was a congressman from Ohio, and from 1825-8, served in the Senate.
He was best known for writing the Mechanic's and Engineer's Pocket Book, known as the "Engineer's Bible", first published in 1842 and republished until 1913, which sold 146,000 copies.
The author of Reminiscences of an Octogenarian (New York 1815-60) lived to be 10 days short of 98 years old.
Source: p9, Ignatiev, How the Irish Became White.
Stayed a year or part of a year at Brook Farm starting 1841. Married Sophia Peabody of Salem in July 1842. Then lived in the "Old Manse" in Concord, MA
Due to financial pressure, he returned to Salem as surveyor of the port from 1845-49 under the democratic Polk regime.
Dates of major novels: Scarlet Letter (1850), The House of the Seven Gables (1851), The Blithedale romance (1852).
Served as Attorney General of SC from 1818-1822, and, as a militia officer, was responsible for stopping the Denmark Vessey Revolt, a well-organized slave rebellion that was to have occurred in Charleston, SC.
Served in the Senate from 1823-1832. "Elected as a Tariff-for-Revenue Democrat" says the Biog Dir of ... Congress. This probably implies his rejection of the tariff for any kind of protection of manufacture, which was especially odious to the South.
Resigned the Senate to serve briefly as Governor of SC in late 1832.
His paintings are on the cover of Thomas, Lincoln, and Newland, Doctors
Like many of the Transcendentalists, he was educated at Harvard(???) to be a Unitarian minister. Unlike many, including Emerson himself, Hedge remained a Unitarian minister - In Bangor Maine (1835-50) and Brookline, Mass (1857-72).
Fluent in European languages, he was among the first to introduce the German philosophies, especially that of Kant, which so influenced the Transcendentalists. What was sometimes called the "Transcendentalist Club" was also sometimes called the "Hedge Club" because it tended to meet whenever he was in town.
He wrote several books and translated many others from German, helping to popularize the German writers in America.
Professor of logic and metaphysics at Harvard 1810-27, and of natural religion, moral philosophy and civil polity 1827-32.
Born in Charleston, SC to Peter Henry, a Scotts-born successful merchant in Jamaica. He had just married and moved to Charleston, and was finishing up business in Jamaica, when his ship was captured by French privateers and, due to harsh treatment, he died.
Meanwhile Robert was born, and his widowed mother opened a dry-goods store for their support. Despite this difficulty, she was able to take her son back to Britain in 1803, where he got an excellent education, graduating from the University of Edinburgh in 1814.
After travel, and a period back in Charleston SC as a minister to the Calvinistic Church of French Protestants, Presbyterian, he began his career at South Carolina College, in Columbia, SC. There he lectured in logic and moral philosophy, metaphysics, belle-lettres at various times. He was briefly acting president at the retirement of Thomas Cooper, and later served as president from 1842-45.
(Source: Faust, Hammond, p14-15, and DAB)
He was passionate, in love with learning, owned a huge library, and was very active with the Springfield Lyceum. He carried on a long correspondence with Theodore Parker. He was helpful to Lincoln, especially as a law researcher. He was also a support to Lincoln in most of his political pursuits. He sometimes overindulged in alcohol, and at other times was active with temperance societies. Mary Lincoln and Herndon mutually despised one another.
In 1889, he published his biography of Lincoln, usually referred to as "Herndon's Lincoln". He believed other biographers had invented a prettified Lincoln, and wanted to show his old friend and hero's earthiness and rough edges, religious skepticism, doubts about his mother's legitimacy, etc.
The verdict of modern historians seems to be, in part, that Herndon is invaluable but not always trustworthy; reliable for what he had personal knowledge of, but apt to believe what he wanted where the evidence was skimpy or ambiguous. The questionable story of Ann Rutledge being the great love of Lincoln's life, and popular notions of Lincoln's rocky courtship of Mary Todd, may have been a result of Herndon's prejudices and speculations around a kernel of truth.
In 1826, he published seminal article promoting what came to be known as the American Lyceum, and in 1826, in Millbury, MA, he started "Millbury Lyceum No. 1, Branch of the American Lyceum".
Party: Republican; Crawford Republican; Adams; Adams; Anti-Jackson
A Representative from Massachusetts and a Senator from Maine; born in Kingston, Mass., March 14, 1773; attended the Kingston public schools; graduated from Rhode Island College (now Brown University), Providence, R.I., in 1796; studied law; was admitted to the bar in 1799 and commenced practice in Alfred, Maine (then a district of Massachusetts); also engaged in literary pursuits; elected to the Massachusetts General Court in 1802, 1803, and 1812; elected to the State senate in 1813 and 1814; one of the commissioners under the treaty of Ghent to divide the islands of Passamaquoddy Bay between the United States and Great Britain 1816; elected from Massachusetts to the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Congresses and served from March 4, 1817, to March 15, 1820, when he resigned; chairman, Committee on Expenditures in the Department of State (Sixteenth Congress); delegate to the Maine constitutional convention; upon separation from Massachusetts and the admission of the State of Maine into the Union was elected to the United States Senate from Maine and served from June 13, 1820, to March 3, 1827; again elected to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Albion K. Parris and served from January 15, 1829, to March 3, 1833; chairman, Committee on Finance (Seventeenth Congress), Committee on Pensions (Twenty-first Congress); resumed law practice; member, State house of representatives 1836-1837; appointed United States attorney for the Maine district in 1841 and served until his death in Portland, Maine, July 7, 1843; interment in private tomb of Cotton Brooks, Eastern Cemetery.
John. The Statesman, or Principles of Legislation and Law. Augusta,
ME: Severance & Dorr, Printers, 1840.
Above is from Directory of Cong Biography
Additional facts from DAB:
In 1811 he "abruptly switched from Federalist to Democrat", though he upheld (in the Massachusetts legislature) the anti-war actions of Federalist Massachusetts.
He was active in the campaign for Maine statehood, and, in the Brunswick Convention of 1816, he became associated with a method proposed for vote-counting which became a target of ridicule as "Holmes Arithmetic". He was chairman of the Maine constitutional convention, and, being in the House of Representatives from 1817-20, did much to put Maine statehood legislation through Congress (he wrote Mr Holmes' Letter to the People of Maine,Washington April 10, 1816, maintaining the controversial position that any restriction on the admission of Missouri would be unconstitutional. He was then promptly elected a Senator for Maine, serving '20-27 and '29-33.
He supported Crawford for president in 1824, them migrated to the Clay camp. In the Senate, he defended Foot's resolution (see Hayne-Webster debates), and opposed Van Buren's nomination as minister to Great Britain.
As a lawyer, he was "keen of with, cool in the face of his opponents' wrath, using satire, ridicule, epithet, and anecdote, often in preference to logic". Together with Willard Wirth, he stood for the "university" in the Dartmouth College case.
Father of William Bradford Holmes.
Married initially to Sally Brooks of Scituate, MA (died 1835), he remaried, (July 31, '37), Caroline F. (Knox) Sawn, youngest daughter of Gen. Henry Knox, and moved to Thomaston, ME, where he lived his last years in the Knox mansion (info on the mansion in Prince, Journals). "Notoriously intemperate" in early years, he later took an active part in the temperance movement.
Speech Of Mr. Holmes, Of Maine, Delivered In The Senate Of The
United States, On The Mission To Pana ma, 1826
Humanities-Gen Research : II p.v.5,no.3
Speech Of Mr. Holmes, Of Maine, In The Senate Of The United States,
On His Resolutions, Calling Upon / in Senate United States, April 28,1830. 1830
Humanities-Gen Research : IAW p.v.6(2)
Speech Of Mr. Holmes, Of Maine, On The Subject Of Internal Improvement.
/ Delivered In The Senate Of The United States April 21-2,
Humanities-Gen Research : II p.v.3(6)
The Statesman; Or, Principles Of Legislation And Law.1840
Humanities-Gen Research : XHA (Holmes, J. Statesman)
Three Speeches Of Mr. Holmes, In The Senate Of Massachusetts. 1814.
Humanities-Gen Research : HAE p.v.66
Sources noted in DAB:
Willis, Hist. of Law, Courts, Lawyers of ME (1863),
Biographical Encyclopedia of Maine in the Nineteenth Century (1855)
There are two volumes of letters to Holmes in the Maine Historical Society
Bowdoin, class of 1823.
Eldest son of Hon. John Holmes (1773-1843) the (prolific in speech and writing) anti-Jackson senator; also much involved in Maine boundary issues, who served between 1817 and 1833.
In college, held a respectable rank .. read law with his father and became partner in business up until 1837, when his father removed to Thomaston.
"sufferred through life from a frail physical constitution .. accute and active mind, a literary taste, and strong desire for acquiring knowledge .. particularly interested in ... history and posesses a large fund of historical information. Kind and amiable in his deportment, and for many years an exemplary member of the Congregational Church in Alfred. Married in 1835 to Phebe W. Little of Castine.
Source: C&P, p271 (also follow link to biog. sketch of his father).
When he was a teenager, his widowed mother moved to claim property of her husband's in mountainous eastern Tennessee near Maryville. He went to a little school, but when his ambitions to learn the classics were discouraged, he quit, so while he had a lifelong love of Pope's Illiad, he had but a couple of years of school.
When his older brothers apprenticed him to a drygoods store, he soon ran away, and showed up at Hiwassee Island, the village of the Cherokee chief Ooleteka. He spent the better part of three years (DAB) among the Cherokee, then briefly taught school before enlisting for the War of 1812.
He served under Andrew Jackson in the War of 1812, and was terribly wounded in the battle of Horseshoe Bend where he had fought ferociously (p42-44). Doctors considered his wounds fatal (p45), but he survived -- it took a couple of years for him to basically recover -- some of his wounds never completely healed (p98).
He remained in the army until March 1, 1818, when he resigned in the face of a slander campaign in which he was being targeted to get at Andrew Jackson. A protege of Jackson, he took up law, practicing in tiny Lebanon TN, between Nashville and Murfreesboro (then the state capitol). He moved to Nashville in October 1819 (p64).
Meanwhile, he advanced in the state militia until in October 1821 he was elected to its highest position, Major General (the position that launched Jackson to fame).
In 1823 he was elected to Congress, and left for Washington in October.
After two terms in Congress, he was, in 1827, elected Gov. of Tennessee (inaugurated 10/1). In 1829, he seemed well on the way to reelection when his marriage to Eliza Allen, in 1/22/29, proved a collosal failure, with hints of scandal, and precipitated the collapse, for the time being, of his brilliant career. What it was about is still a mystery, but the day after the wedding, his wife was heard to say "I wish from the bottom of my heart they would kill him." (p99) Houston mysteriously failed to attend Jackson's inauguration, which he had done so much to bring about. The marriage teetered on the brink for three months, but in April, Eliza left him and never returned despite his letter writing and begging on his knees.
One theory, hinted at by Da Bruhl, is that his wife could not cope with Houston's repulsive wounds, and treated him coldly, and it is clear from his own apologies and explanations that, towards the end, he questioned her love, and possibly even fidelity, to him. Whatever the cause, he was suddenly reviled, and burned in effigy in many places.
On April 16, Houston resigned as governor (p102), and on the 23rd, (p103) boarded a steamboat down the Cumberland to the Ohio and Mississippi. The trip was interrupted by two armed members of his wife's family boarding the boat and demanding that he either "return and prove his rumored libel of Eliza or sign a paper denying it (p104). He refused, but offered to "put a notice in the papers that if 'any wretch ever dares to utter a word against the purity of Mrs. Houston I will come back and write the libel in his heart's blood.'"
(Source: Da Bruhl, Sword of San Jacinto.)
Source: Biog. Dir of Congress, which sites DAB.
(Source: The Communitarian Moment)
"The most influential leader in America of the Irish". Blasted Daniel O'Connell for calling on Irish-Americans to protest slavery (Source: Ignatiev, How the Irish..., p12). A militant defender of Catholicism.
Source: Biog. Dir. of Am. Congress.