Studied under private tutors; attended Walker Maury's School at Burlington, Orange County, VA, the grammar schools of the College of William and Mary, the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) in 1787, and Columbia College, New York City in 1788 and 1789.
Served as a States Right Democrat (this is from Bio ... American Congress - their capitalization. I haven't heard of an actual party by that name though) from 1799 - 1813. He was a major opposer of the U.S. declaration of war on Britain in 1812. He ran for election in 1812 as an anti-Madison candidate and was defeated. He served again from 1815-1817 and was again defeated, then served from 1819 to December 26,1825 when he resigned and accepted election to the senate. In the Senate, he was among those determined to thwart the John Qunicy Adams presidency in everything it tried to do. He was particularly insulting to Henry Clay, then serving as Secretary of State, which lead to Clay challenging him to a duel, though neither party was hurt.
He lost the bid for reelection to the Senate, but was sent back to the House from 1827-1829. Member of the Virginia Constitutional Convention in Richmond in 1829. Appointed minister to Russia by Andrew Jackson and served from May 26 to September 29, 1830, when he resigned. Elected again to the House and served from March 4, 1833 to May 24, 1833 when he died.
He toured Ireland (in 1840?), and was exceptionally well received there. In December 1841, he delivered to America an anti-slavery appeal signed by 60,000 Irish, addressed to their fello-countrymen in the U.S. (Source: p9, Ignatiev, How the Irish Became White).
He was very successful in his trade, discovered a process for rolling sheet copper, and was contracted to put copper sheathing on the Constitution, or "Old Ironsides".
His two storey wooden house at 19 North Square, probably built in 1680, is all that remains of the 17th century North End (Whitehill, Boston, p15; photograph, p16).
In 1844 he changed Brook Farm's constitution, making it a Fourierite "phalanx", and from 1845-1849, he edited the Harbinger, a Fourierite magazine.
In later years, he was a literary critic, for the New York Tribune (from 1849-80), and for Harper's New Monthly Magazine, which he founded in 1850. In 1858-63, he edited the New American Magazine, with Charles A. Dana.
"Tall and aristocratic, and always dressed in the silk stockings and low shoes of the old style; manager of most of Richmonds public balls" [and leader of the most prestigious Richmond social functions]; leader of the "Richmond Junta". After he left the Enquirer in the charge of his sons, one bitter quarrel with the Richmond Whig got so out of hand that Thomas Jr., fought a duel with, and killed, the rival editor, John H. Pleasants.
Source: Ignatiev, How the Irish...
Many, if not all, of her books were published "for the author", and as she went around the country collecting interviews, and notes on whatever she saw, she collected subscriptions for forthcoming books, and sold already published books out of a trunk she always brought with her.
Her first book, Sketches of History, Life, and Manners, in the United States, "by a traveler", was published in 1826, printed in New Haven, CT. This, and a series called the Black Book, vols 1, 2, and 3, sold well, and made Anne Royall widely known over the next few years.
During these years, the evangelical movement sprung up in America, led largely by Presbyterians. At the same time, the Freemasons came under attack, and the death of John Morgan, the same year Anne's first book was published, lead to Anti-Masonic Party, which published scores of newspapers, had its own candidate for president, and caused the majority of lodges in America to close.
Anne Royall, widow of a prominent Freemason, called on the fraternity for support, especially in the first years of her career. The responded most generously, and in New York, on February 28, 1825, the manager of the Chatham Garden Theater, Jonathan Stevenson, staged a benefit performance for her, from which she gained the magnificent sum of $180. Ever after, she was a zealous defender of the Masons, and they were constantly befriending her.
Meanwhile, revivals were spreading throughout America, along with many reform and pseudo-reform movements, notably the Sabbatarian movement, which aimed to stop all work on Sundays, including public transportation (such as stagecoaches, canal boats and river boats), and the delivery of Sunday mails. Rev. Ezra Stiles Ely, of Philadelphia, was one prominent leader in all of this, and was particularly involved in trying to organize a strictly Christian political party.
Anne Royall, like some others in her time, saw one big conspiracy of the "blueskins", lead by Rev. Ely. At the same time, she fell in with Jacksonian politicians, who tended to fear church interference in the state, and were the party least aligned with the Anti-Masons.
The result was that people mostly either loved or hated Anne Royall. On December 16, 1827, she was touring New England, peddling her books and jotting down observations for new books, when she arrived in Burlington, VT. There she walked into a store run by Samuel Hecock, whom she knew to be a "very good specimen of blueskins", and in her usual rather confrontational style "called on him for his patronage". He pushed her out the door, where she fell down a tall flight of stairs, and was seriously injured. The prosperous Hecock was threatened with a damage suit, and apparently made some kind of financial settlement. She was mostly bedridden for weeks, though she managed to get herself hauled by coaches to Washington.
A second dramatic incident came in the summer of 1829, when Anne Royall was put on trial as a "common scold"; a term dredged up out of English common law, for which the punishment was supposed to be ducking under water in the "ducking stool". She lost, and was fined $10, but journalists and the Jackson White house fought over the honor of paying he fine.
She frequently was given free transportation and lodging because of her anti-Sabbatarian stand, her defense of Masons, or just being a "good Jackson man". The Stagecoach and boat lines , except for the few "six day" lines, saw her as their defender.
She was born in Baltimore, but spent her early years (til about age 13), in extreme poverty, on what was then the edge of the frontier -- western Pennsylvania. Savage raids by British and Tory-led Indians led Anne Royall's mother to flee back east, along with other settlers. By this time, Anne Royall's father had apparently died, and her mother had taken, and lost, a second husband named Butler by whom she had a son, James.
Mrs. Butler worked for a couple of years with an Anderson family near Staunton, VA, and then served Major William Royall in present day West Virginia, near Lewisburg.
Royall was a Revolutionary War veteran, well-educated son and heir of a well-to-do Virginia family, and a product of Enlightenment optimism and faith in rationality. He had a good library, and seems to have done much to educate the intellectually curious Anne, who was 18 when they arrived at his house.
On May 4, 1798, Anne married William Royall. She had been living in his house for ten years, and rumors would follow her that they had been on intimate terms for some years before the marriage. Anne was 28 then, and the Major was in his middle 50s.
In December, 1812, Major Royall died, after spending much the last few years ill and drunk. At first the widow Royall seemed well provided for, but soon a struggle over the will began, in which a niece of the Major, and her husband attacked Anne's character viciously, got the will declared a forgery, and took over most of the estate. Between legal fees, mismanagement on her part, and the cloud that hung over her properties for years, the one third of the estate that technically remained to her was entirely lost. For some time she had to dodge constables for fear of going to debtors prison.
TRAVELS OF ANNE ROYALL
Later he was known as an energetic southern secessionist.
Years of Service: 1835-1837; 1837-1841; Party: Jacksonian; Democrat
Source of above: Biog. Dir. of Am. Congress.