books which might be of general interest to students of the "Early
Republic" period -- If you find any worth purchasing after following
one of these links, a portion will go to support of this web site:
The Greater Journey: Americans in Paris by David McCullough a "story of the adventurous American artists, writers, doctors,
politicians, architects, and others of high aspiration who set off for
Paris in the years between 1830 and 1900, ambitious to excel in their
The Price of Civilization: Reawakening American Virtue and Prosperity by Jeffrey Sachs. From book description: "For more than three decades, Jeffrey D. Sachs has been at the forefront
of international economic problem solving. But Sachs turns his
attention back home in The Price of Civilization, a book that is
essential reading for every American. In a forceful, impassioned, and
personal voice, he offers not only a searing and incisive diagnosis of
our country’s economic ills but also an urgent call for Americans to
restore the virtues of fairness, honesty, and foresight as the
foundations of national prosperity.
Brief Biographies from the Jackson/Van Buren Era (A):
Abbott, Charles Jeffrey
1806 - ?
Abbot, Gorham Dummer 1807
Minister and educator. Attended Bowdoin, graduating in 1826,
then spent some time at Andover Theological Seminary but did not graduate.
Served as a pastor in New Rochelle, NY from 1837-41.
Having helped Jacob conduct the Mount Vernon School for girls in Boston
from 1831-33, he took up the cause of girls education again with the establishment
of a girls' school in New York (known as Abbott's Institution and by other
names), begun in 1843, in which he was helped by Jacob,
and Charles. This became his most siginificant life work After this
school, he began the Springler Institute which he conducted until 1870.
Its catalogue stated its aim was "to provide for daughters, priveleges
of education equal to those of sons in our Universities, ..."
His brothers included Jacob
and John S.C. Abbott
(despite their spelling their names differently). Their father, Jacob Abbot
2nd moved from Concord NH to become a pioneer in developing southern Maine,
and establish a family home in Hallowell,
Abbott, Jacob 1803-1879:
b.11/14,d.10/31Born in Hallowell, Maine;
Bowdoin College 1820; Andover Theological Seminary 1825. Was professor
of mathematics and natural philosophy at Amherst College from 1825-9. Ordained
Sep. 18, 1834 at Elliot Church, Boston Highlands; was succeeded by his
brother, Rev. J.S.C., on Nov. 25, 1835.
Wrote copiously for juveniles, including his first success,
The Young Christian: Or, a Familiar Illustration of the Principles of Christian Duty
Corner Stone, 30 volumes of juvenile biographies, 24 volumes of
the "Rollo", "Lucy", and "Jonas" stories.
"Abbott" was originally spelled with one "t", but Jacob and (most of?)
his brothers added another "t" (Gorman Dummer did not).
Another brother was John
Stevens Cabot Abbott.
Abbott, John Stevens
Cabot 1805 - 1877
Congregational minister and historian, and active in women's education.
Graduated Bowdoin in 1825,
a classmate of Hawthorne
served a year as principal of the academy at Amherst
MA; studied at Andover
Seminary, graduating in 1829, and was ordained to a pastorate at Central
Calvinistic Church in Worcester,
MA on 1/28/1830 (served until 1834). He served from 1835-41 at Eliot
Congregational Church in Roxbury, and from 1841-43 at First Congregational
Church in Nantucket.
He began to write with The Mother at Home in 1834; in 1843, got
involved in the seminary for young ladies in New York (known as Abbott's
Institution and by other names), which was started by his brother, Gorham
D. Abbot, with help of brothers Jacob and Charles. He mainly worked
for this school until 1843, when he returned to Brunswick, ME, where his
son attended Bowdoin and he conducted historical research using the college
His History of Napoleon Bonaparte, serialized in the new Harper's
Magazine from 1851-54, and published in 1855, was a huge success (and
very helpful to Harper's), and he continued to write much, mostly
on historical subjects. He was a popularizer who tended towards praising
his subjects extravagently (including Napoleon).
In 1861 he returned to the ministry, serving at Howe Street Church,
New Haven, CT for 5 years, and later at Second Church in Fair Haven CT
from 1870-74 (and in between?).
"Abbott" was originally spelled with one "t", but Jacob and (most of?)
his brothers added another "t" (Gorman Dummer did not).
Irish-American Pioneer who lived among the Chickasaw Indians between 1735
and 1775, and wrote History of the American Indians (1775) which
theorized that the Indians were descended from ancient Jews.
Adams, Abigail 1744-1818:
Wife of John Adams. Tried to pursuade him to consider equal rights for
women at the time the constitution was drafted.
Adams, Charles Francis
Lawyer, diplomat and writer. He played an important role in keeping Great
Britain from going too far in their friendliness towards the Confederacy
during the Civil War. Published early versions of the copious Adams family
The only son of John Quincy Adams who made a successful career. His
older brothers, George Washington Adams was an apparent suicide. Both George
and John Adams Jr. seemed to suffer greatly from pressure to live up to
a great family name.
Married the daughter of Peter Brooks, perhaps the richest man in Massachusetts.
Adams, George Washington
1801 - 1829:
Eldest child(?) of John Quincy Adams.
Harvard(?) read and practiced law in Daniel Webster's office(?). Apparently
committed suicide; disappeared from the Benjamin Franklin
April 30, 1829, on its way from Providence,
RI to New York; he was making
a mess of his life, and had been summoned to Washington by his father,
apparently to give an account of some things, and was feeling hopeless.
The June 13 New York Herald
reported his body washing up on shore.
of the Heart.
Adams, Hannah 1755 - 1831:
Author of a Dictionary of Religions. Born Medford, MA.
Adams, John 1735-1826:
Second president of the U.S. Signer of the Declaration of Independence.
He had a distinguished career in diplomacy between 1777 and 1788, then
served two terms as Vice President, and one as President.
He tried to suppress "seditious" speech in order to control the passions
set loose in the U.S. by the French Revolution. This created such a strong
reaction as to sweep in the Jeffersonian Democrats in 1800, making Adams
the only 1 term president among the first six presidents.
Adams, John, Jr. 1803 - 1834:
2nd son of John Quincy Adams. He was
expelled from Harvard in the "Great Rebellion of 1823". His father tried
to set him up in a flour mill in Washington, but he drank excessively,
and this probably contributed to his early death.
of the Heart.
Adams, John Quincy (1767 - 1848):
Son of John Adams, John Quincy's formative years were partly spent in Europe,
where his father served as a diplomat.
U.S. Senator from 1803-1808, and Minister to Russia from 1809-11. Declined
an appointment to the Supreme Court in 1811. He was a rare creature in
New England during the years before the war of 1812 - a Republican, in
favor of the war with Britain, and in favor of New England's fully backing
the war, despite the economic suffering it caused there. With Henry
Clay, helped negotiate the Peace of Ghent which concluded the war.
Under James Monroe,
he served as Secretary of state, and did much to develop the Monroe Doctrine
towards Latin America.
From 1825-1829 he was President of the U.S.
Remarkably, after his presidency, he accepted election to the House
of Representatives where he served until his death. He was somewhat caught
up in the Anti-Masonic movement, which expressed revulsion against the
organization's secrecy and status as a fraternity of powerful men.
He became something of an anti-slavery hero by protesting year after
year the "gag rule" which prohibited discussion of any anti-slavery measure
in the House, until this House rule was finally abolished. He stayed in
harness literally til the end of his life, when he fell stricken on the
floor of the House of Representatives.
Catherine Johnson 1775 - 1852:
b. Feb. 12, 1775, d. May 15, 1852
Wife of John Quincy Adams. (more
to be added later).
of the Heart, Notable
Adlum, John 1759-1836:
Produced the Catawba grape for wine making. Wrote Adlum on Making Wine
in 1826, and was a pioneer in his field.
Born York, PA.
Agassiz, Louis 1807- 1873:
A Swiss born naturalist who became a professor at Harvard from 1848-73.
Some of his work had to do with explaining the action of glaciers. His
second wife, formerly Elizabeth Cabot Cary (1822 - 1907) was a founder
of Ratcliff College and its president from 1894-1902.
Agate, Frederick Styles
Painter, Born in Sparta NY. Helped create the
American Academy of Design in 1826.
Agnew, David Hayes 1818-1892:
Surgeon, educator, and author of books on surgury. Born Lancaster
Aiken, George L. 1830-1876:
Actor and playwright, born in Boston. Made Uncle Tom's Cabin into
a play in 1852.
Akerman, Amos Tappan 1821-1880:
Lawyer born in Portsmouth, NH. Practiced in Georgia, served in the Confederate
Army, became U.S. Attorney general 1870-71.
Akers, Benjamin Paul 1824-1861:
Sculptor of Una and the Lion and The Dead Pearl Diver. Born
in Sccarappa Maine, which is now part of Westbrook.
Alaman, Lucas 1792 - 1853:
Mexican historian who held offices under Santa Anna. Anti-democratic, he
has been held responsible for much of the hostility between the U.S. and
Mexico which helped bring about the Mexican-American war. Wrote some valuable
works on Mexican history.
Alcott, Amos Bronson (1799-1888):
Bronson, as he was called, was deeply religious in a mystical way; his
first calling was to awaken the innate abilities, goodness, and religious
comprehension of children. He seemed to have a magical effect on people,
though he often seemed hapless and not cut out for this world. Emerson
lovingly called him a "tedious archangel". Another said "one cannot laugh
at him without loving him".
One of Alcott's earliest friends (from about 1827), the Untarian reformer
Samuel J. May, described him: (Shepard, Pedlar's
I have never, but in one instance, been so immediately taken possession
of by any man I have ever met in life. He seemed to be a born sage and
saint. He was radical in all matters of reform; went to the root of all
things, especially the subjects of education, mental and moral culture.
What he wrote in his notebook in 1828(?) could have served as the coda
of the Transcendentalist movement among Harvard-educated
Unitarian ministers, and particularly to express what he was driving at
in the Temple School: (Shepard, Pedlar's
The intellect of preachers seems still wandering among the mysteries
of a dark and antiquated theology. ... They lead us through a bewildering
labyrinth of theory, of book-work, far away from the ever-present and all-pervading
Deity. They lead us to what man has said and thought, and recorded in books,
rather than to what He who made man has recorded in living character.
And Elizabeth Palmer Peabody, a great educational reformer in her own right,
and not overly humble, wrote to him:
I have felt and declared that you have more genius for education than
I ever saw, or expected to see. I am vain enough to say that you are the
only one I ever saw who, I soberly thought, surpassed myself in the general
conception of this divinest of arts. (Shepard, Pedlar's
A poor New England Farm boy from Wolcott, CT with little education, he
began his career as a peddler in the south, and there, where educational
benchmarks were lower, began to try his hand as a teacher. From 1823-39,
he taught school in Connecticut, Boston, and Pennsylvania. In Boston, in
1834 began an ambitious and unusual teaching enterprise, and fell in with
The school he started in 1834, housed in a Masonic Temple was called
the "Temple School". There he taught small children, with the assistance
of Elizabeth Peabody and the
brilliant Margaret Fuller. He
stimulated the children to think for themselves, and conducted Socratic
dialogues with them about religion and ethics. He believed, and was anxious
to prove, that children carried their own internal "book of life"; that
they needed just a bit of gentle coaxing to become aware of their inner
goodness and natural knowlege.
He had a gift for his original mode of teaching, in an age when rote
learning was the norm. In 1836 and '37, he published Record of Conversations
on the Gospel, the "conversations" being between him and the children
he taught. Some very good excerpts can be found in Perry Miller's invaluable
Transcendentalists: An Anthology. The book, however, involved him
in scandal, and he was attacked by the Boston newspapers. An example of
what was "scandalous" in the book (quoted in Boller,
And a mother suffers when she has a child. When she is going to have
a child she gives up her body to God and He works upon it in a mysterious
way and, with her aid, brings forth the child's Spirit in a little Body
of its own; and when it has come she is blissful.
Between the "scandalousness" of his writing and interacting with children,
his way of drawing religion out of children rather than impressing them
with external authority, and finally his admission of an African American
girl to the school, he outraged his students' parents, and so the school
had to be closed.
In 1844 he started a commune - of only a handful of people, called Fruitlands.
Most of the colonists had their heads in the clouds - according to Boller,
Alcott's wife did all the work, and the diet consisted mostly of cornmeal
mush. The colony lasted but a very few months.
Alcott lived another 44 years, sometimes writing (including a biography
of Emerson), sometimes lecturing
for a fee as many did in his day, or leading discussion groups. It was
a precarious living until his daughter, Louisa May Alcott (author of Little
Women) became a successful writer.
(Main source: Shepard, Pedlar's
Alexander, John Henry 1812-1867:
Scientist born in Annapolis, MD. Writer, and proponent of standardized
weights and measures.
Alexander, Stephen 1806-1883:
Astronomer born Schenectady NY. One of the original 50 members of the National
Academy of Sciences.
Alfieri, Cesare 1796-1869:
Proponent of Italian unification.
Allen, Elisha Hunt 1804-1883:
Practice law in Bangor Maine, and was a member of the House of Representatives.
Consul at Hawaii 1850-56, and later served there as minister of finance;
chancellor and chief justice; Hawaiin minister to the U.S. from 1876-83.
Allen, Ethan 1738-1789:
Revolutionary War hero. seized Fort Ticonderoga with Benedict Arnold in
1775. Prisoner of the British from 1875 - 78, and one of the few captured
with him to survive.
A religious freethinker, he was ironically born in Litchfield, Connecticut,
home of the famous ministries of Jonathan Edwards and Lyman Beecher.
Allen, Henry Watkins 1820-1866:
The son of a doctor; refused to enter business as his father wanted, entered
college, then dropped out, and became a lawyer.
In 1842, he joined the army in Texas (then an independant nation),
under Houston. He married against the will of his wife's family,
which led to a duel in which he was seriously injured, but the families
were reconciled later.
In 1854(?) he saied to Europe to fight for Italian independence.
He was too late to be of any help there, but stayed and toured Europe for
a while. His Adventures of a Sugar Planter (1861) describes
After Europe he became active in politics. His main achievements
came with the Civil War, where he signed up as a private, quickly rose
to Lieutenant-colonel, and then Brigadier general. After taking some
very serious wounds, he left the military and became governor of his native
(since around 1850) Louisiana. Though half of Louisiana was ceded
to the Union, he brought the part west of the Mississippi back from eminent
collapse. He lived his last year in Mexico; his death was probably
due to the ruination of his health by his wounds, especially the leg wound
for which doctors wanted to amputate.
see also Henry Watkins Allen of Louisiana.
Allen, John 1810-1892:
Invented modern dentures, with porcelain teeth attached to a platinum plate,
for which he received patent in 1851. Born in Broome County NY.
Allen, John (of Tennessee)
"a peripatetic lawyer, filibusterer, and land speculator" (p105, Da
"Well to do planter and close friend of Andrew
Jackson." His plantation, Allenwood, on the Cumberland
River near Gallatin, was often
visited by Jackson.
Brother of the congressman Robert
Allen, and father-in-law of Sam Houston (see 1/22/29
-- the marriage was catastrophic and the two essentially never lived together).
(Source: mostly Da
Bruhl, Sword of San Jacinto, p96ff)
Allen, Joseph Henry 1820
Unitarian minister, teacher and writer. Wrote Our Liberal Movement
in Theology (1882), Christian History in Its Three Great Periods
(1883), and Historical sketch of the Unitarian Movement (1894).
He also authored, in the late 1860s, a widely used school series of Latin
He was born in Northboro, MA. His father was the minister of the
First Church there for 56 years; his mother was a daughter of Henry Ware,
who made Harvard a stronghold of Unitarian theology beginning in 1805.
In 1847, he became pastor of the Washington DC Unitarian church; in
1850, his ministry moved to Bangor, ME. From 1857, he was mostly
a teacher and writer. He was associate editor of the Christian
Examiner from 1863-65, and was lecturer on ecclesiastical history at
Harvard from 1887-1891.
Allen, Richard 1760 - 1831:
One of the founders of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, and its
bishop from 1816-31. Born a slave in Philadelphia.
(Irish abolitionist) ? - ?:
Correspondent in Dublin, of Wm.
Lloyd Garrison. Worked with James
Haughton. In the summer 1841 helped American abolitionists tour Ireland,
and helped draw up an Irish anti-slavery petition.
Source: p9, 14, Ignatiev,
the Irish Became White.
Allen, Robert 1788 - 1844:
Congressman from Tennessee 1819-27. Formerly Colonel under Andrew
Jackson in the War of 1812.
Lived in Carthage TN from 1804,
where he practiced law, and later farmed and engaged in business.
Brother of John Allen; he
introduced Sam Houston
to the family when both men were in Congress. This led to Houston's unfortunate
marriage to John's daughter Eliza.
Bruhl, Sword of San Jacinto, p96; Biog.
Dir of Am. Congress.)
Allen, William 1784-1868:
Congregational minister. Born Pittsfield MA. Grad Harvard in 1802. President
of Dartmouth from 1817-19 and Bowdoin from 1819-31 and 33-38. Compiled
Biographical and Historical Dictionary, initially in
Allen, Zachariah 1795-1882:
Invented the first hot-air house-heating system 1819), and an automatic
steam-engine cutoff (1834).
Born in Providence RI.
Allibone, Samuel Austin
Editor and librarian. Compiled A Critical Dictionar of English Literature
and British and American Authors between 1858 and 1871.
Born in Philadelphia.
Allston, Washington 1779-1843:
Artist, poet and novelist, born in Waccamaw, SC. Studied in Europe.
ALSTON, Willis, 1769-1837
ALSTON, Willis, (nephew of Nathaniel Macon), a Representative from North
Carolina; born near Littleton, Halifax County, N.C., in 1769; completed
preparatory studies and attended Princeton College; engaged in agricultural
pursuits; member of the State house of commons 1790-1792; served in the
State senate 1794-1796; elected as a Republican to the Sixth and to the
seven succeeding Congresses (March 4, 1799-March 3, 1815); chairman, Committee
on Revisal and Unfinished Business (Thirteenth Congress); again a member
of the State house of commons 1820-1824; elected to the Nineteenth and
Twentieth Congresses and reelected as a Jacksonian to the Twenty-first
Congress (March 4, 1825-March 3, 1831); chairman, Committee on Elections
(Twenty-first Congress); was not a candidate for reelection to the Twenty-second
Congress; resumed agricultural pursuits; died in Halifax, N.C., April 10,
1837; interment in a private burying ground on his plantation home, ?Butterwood,?
near Littleton, Halifax County, N.C.
Dir. of Am. Congress.
Alter, David 1807-1881:
Physicist and Physician, born in Westmoreland Co., PA. Made discoveries
which made spectral analysis of chemicals possible.
Alvarado, Juan Bautista
Governor of the virtually independent Department of California from 1836
- 41, when it was part of Mexico.
Alvarez, Juan 1790? - 1867:
Mexican general of Indian descent who helped Santa Anna seize power in
1823, fought with Santa Anna against the U.S. in 1846-7. He helped overthrow
Santa Anna in 1855 and was acting president for two months at the end of
Ames, David and John
Owners of the Ames Paper Mill in Springfield,
MA, an advanced facility for the day.
Information should be found in Chapin,
... Old Springfield
Ames, Oakes 1804-1873:
Financier and politician. Born in Easton Mass. Made a fortune in Oliver
Ames and Sons, shovel manufacturers. Served in House of Representatives
Ames, Oliver 1807 - 1877:
Headed a very successful shovel manufacturing enterprise, Oliver Ames and
Sons, and during and after the Civil War, a successful railroad man.
Ampere, Andre Marie 1775
Made some of the most important discoveries in the fields of electicity
and magnetism (French).
Anderson, Alexander 1775
American engraver born in New York. Made first wood engravings in America.
Representative from Maine; born in Windham, Maine, July 30, 1792; attended
the common schools; was graduated from Bowdoin
College, Brunswick, Maine, in 1813; studied law; was admitted to the
bar in 1816 and commenced practice in Portland,
Maine; member of the State senate in 1823; elected to the Nineteenth
and Twentieth Congresses and elected as a Jacksonian to the Twenty-first
and Twenty-second Congresses (March 4, 1825-March 3, 1833); chairman, Committee
on Elections (Twentieth Congress), Committee on Naval Affairs (Twenty-second
Congress); was not a candidate for renomination in 1832; mayor
of Portland 1833-1836 and again in 1842; United States attorney for the
district of Maine 1833-1836; collector of customs for the port of Portland
1837-1841 and 1843-1848; resumed the practice of law; died in Portland,
Maine, August 21, 1853; interment in Town Cemetery (then a part of the
farm of his ancestors) on River Road, Windham, Maine.
Above from Biog
Dir. of Congress.
Anderson, Joseph 1757 - 1837:
Born in White Marsh PA. Senator from Tennessee from 1797-1815. First comptroller
of the Treasury from 1815-36.
Anderson, Richard H. 1821-1879:
West point grad. Rose to major general of the Confederate Army.
Anderson, Robert 1805 - 1871:
Born in Kentucky; grad West Point in 1825. Commanded Fort Sumter in Charleston,
SC when the confederate forces attached it. He is supposed to have mustered
in Abraham Lincoln (Thomas, p 33) when the latter served as militia captain
in the Black Hawk War.
Andrew, James Osgood 1794
Methodist Episcopal Bishop. Born in Wilkes County GA. His holding of slaves
helped split the church, and he was one of the first bishops of the Methodist
Episcopal Church, South (1846).
Andrews, Ethan Allen 1787
Born New Britain, CT. Translated a Freund's Latin-German lexicon into a
Latin-English lexicon in 1850, which became the original of Harper's
Andrews, Lorrin 1795 - 1868:
Missionary in Hawaii from 1828 - 41. First associate justice of supreme
court in Hawaii 1852-55. Born in East Windsor (now Vernon), CT.
Andrews, William Draper
1818 - 1896:
Inventor of a centrifugal pump.
Angell, Joseph Kinnicutt
Lawyer and author of legal treatises. Born in Providence RI.
Anthon, Charles 1797 - 1867:
Classical scholar born in New York City. Professor at Columbia from 1820
to 1867. Edited texts and classical dictionaries.
Applegath, Augustus 1788
Invented a vertical printing press in England.
Appleton, Daniel 1785 - 1849:
Publisher and founder of D. Appleton & Co., book publishers, in 1838
(bought the building that housed the Old Corner bookstore in Boston, and
made it home of his printing company).
Appleton, Nathan 1779 - 1861:
Pioneered cotton cloth manufacture in Waltham, Lowell, and Lawrence MA,
and Manchester, NH. One of the cofounders of Lowell,
Appleton, Thomas Gold 1812
Genial poet and essayist; son of Nathan
Arago, Francois 1786-1853:
French physicist important to the discovery of principals concerning light
and magnetism. Took part in the July Revolution in 1830. Responsible for
abolition of slavery in the French colonies.
Archer, Branch Tanner
1790 - 1856:
Born in Virginia. Moved to Texas in 1831. Active in Texas independence
movement. Texas secretary of war under President Lamar.
Arguello, Luis Antonio
Governor of California under Mexican rule from 1822-25. Led expedition
to Columbia River region in 1821.
Arminius, Jacobus 1560 - 1609:
Dutch Reform theologian, whose name (Arminianism) stands for a rejection
of the Calvinist doctrine of predestination, a doctrine which played an
important role in the history of the American Churches.
Armistead, Lewis Addison
Born in New Bern, NC. Was a Brigadier General killed in Pickett's charge
at Gettysburg. An army officer from 1839 til his death.
Armstrong, John 1758 - 1843:
Secretary of War in the war of 1812, and held largely responsible for American
failures in that war.
Armstrong, William George
An English baron who invented a hydroelectric generator (1840-5), a hydraulic
crane, and the prototype (around 1855) of all modern breech-loading artilery.
Arnold, Samuel Green 1821
Lieutenant gov. of Rhode Island (born in Providence) in 1852, 61, and 62;
U.S. Senator from 62-63; and historian of Rhode Island.
Arthur, Timothy Shay 1809
Born in Newburgh, NY, he was a writer and temperance crusader; author of
the extremely popular Ten Nights in a Barroom and What I Saw There.
Asbury, Francis (Aug 26, 1745 - Mar. 31,
First(?)Methodist bishop in America. At age 23 he became an itinerant preacher
under the guidance of John Wesley. Sent as missionary from England in 1771,
he was recalled in
Ashley, William Henry
1778 - 1838:
Fur trader and explorer. Traveled nearly as far as the Great South Lake.
Ashmead, Isaac 1790-1870:
Founder in 1819 of the Sunday and Adult School Union; later called the
American Sunday School Union. Born in Germantown PA.
Henry 1807 - 1875:
Promoter of the Pacific Mail Steamship Co. and Panama Railroad (1850-55).
Born in New York City.
Astor, John Jacob 1763 - 1848:
Immensely successful German-American fur trader. Monopolized Mississippi
Valley fur trade by 1817, and the upper Missouri in 1822-34. Made large
and profitable loans to the U.S. in the war of 1812, and invested heavily
in New York real estate.
Atkinson, Edward 1817 - 1905:
Textile manufacturer and economist. Born in Brookline, MA.
Atkinson, Thomas 1807 - 1881:
Episcopalian bishop of North Carolina. Helped reunite northern and southern
branches of the church after the civil war. Born in Dinwiddie County VA.
Attwood, Thomas 1783 - 1856:
Chartist and english reformer. Organized the Political Union in 1830, and
was member of Parliament from 1832-9.
Atwater, Caleb 1778 - 1867:
Pioneer in Chilicothe, OH,
amateur naturalist, esp. in archeology. Sent on May 1829 to help negotiate
a treaty with the Winnebago and other Indians who met at Prairie
du Chien. His book, Remarks
Made on a Tour to Prairie du Chein, thence to Washington City in 1829
(orig: Columbus, OH, 1831) described the landscape, towns visited along
the way, the Indians and their customs, as well as Philadelphia and Washington,
which he visited at the end of the trip. (Source: DAB,
Audubon, John J. 1785-1851:
Born in Haiti, he became famous in America for his observations and beautiful,
meticulous paintings of the birds of America. He began this career after
failing as a merchant in 1819. After years of traveling in the wilderness,
and more years of struggle for recognition for what he had done, he settled
in New York City, and built up an estate from 1841-51.
Austin, Stephen F. 1793 -
One of the earliest American settlers in Texas. He organized a colony from
1822-32 of Americans who, to become Mexican citizens were (nominally at
least) converted to Catholicism.
Austin, William 1778 - 1841:
Lawyer and writer of Peter Rugg, the Missing Man (1824). Born in
Auzoux, Louis 1797 - 1880:
French inventor of a paste which made possible the casting of anatomical
models; popularized the study of anatomy.
Avogadro, Amedeo 1776 - 1856:
Important Italian chemist and physicist who theorized that equal volumes
of any gas at a given temperature and pressure have equal numbers of molecules