Brief Biographies from the Jackson/Van Buren Era (C):


Cabet, Etian 1788 - 1856:

An exile from the French revolution of 1830, he led an Owenite utopian community in Nauvoo, IL from 1849-56 (Nauvoo was previously occupied by the Mormons).


Cabor, George 1752 - 1823:

One of the conservative group of federalists called the Essex Junto who dominated Massachusetts politics for a while. From Salem MA, he was a shipping magnate from 1768 - 1795.


Cain, Richard Harvey 1825 - 1887:

Negro African Methodist Episcopal minister from 1862. Freeborn in Greenbrier County, VA. He was in the House of Representatives from 1873-75 and 1877-79.


Calhoun, John 1806 - 1859:

President of the Lecompton convention which drafted a proslavery constitution for Kansas. The Lecompton constitution was later rejected.


Calhoun, John Caldwell (1782 - 1850):

South Carolina Senator, Two-term Vice President, Secretary of War and Secretary of State. Best remembered for his years in the U.S. Senate from 1832-43 and from 1845-50, in which he gave perhaps the strongest voice to the South's dissatisfaction with the Union.

Graduate of Yale (1804), and student at Tapping Reeve's "law school" in Litchfield, CT.

Calhoun was the only man to be Vice President under two different presidents of violently opposing tendencies. When he was elected to serve under John Quincy Adams, he was disgusted at the way Adams was put into the presidency by the House of Representatives against the evident will of the electorate. He soon joined in a coalition, involving Martin Van Buren, and Andrew Jackson, to replace Adams with Jackson at the next elections.

Calhoun had been, up to this time, a strong nationalist; i.e. in the context of the time, one who favored the United States functioning as one nation, rather than 23 states that had made a compact with one another. In the House of Representatives, from 1811-17, he had joined Henry Clay as a "War Hawk", calling for America's going to war with Great Britain, which was controlling the seas and impressing men off of American vessels, and suppressing much of America's overseas trade. At the same time, many hoped to use the war to expand the American borders. Others thought going to war with Britain was foolhardy; and indeed the war did result in some catastrophes for the U.S., like the burning of the Capitol building and the White House. In the House, and as Secretary of War from 1817-25, Calhoun was a proponent of national projects - especially the building of a great transportation network, which would make the country stronger economically and militarily.

In the late 1820s and early 1830s, Calhoun's state of South Carolina became increasingly opposed to national projects, especially the tariff (tax on imports), and any project, such as roadbuilding, which spent federal money, and hence could prolong the life of the tariff.

Calhoun, persuaded to this viewpoint, gave a theoretical justification in terms of constitutional law, for South Carolina refusing to pay the tariff. He and others hoped that if South Carolinians voted a proclamation nullifying the tariff law, and stuck to their guns, they would establish a precedent by which, in the future, the constitution would be interpreted, making it always possible, if state feelings were strong enough (in terms of votes), for a state to decline to follow a federal law (the nullifying state could be overruled by a constitutional amendment).

The first congress held under the Jackson administration was presented with a document from South Carolina, protesting a recently passed strongly protectionist tariff, and threatening that the state might well take action to nullify it, and hinting at seccession if the Federal government should attempt to enforce the tariff.

In those days, the Vice President was actual as well as figurative head of the Senate, and acted as chairman directing the debate there. About a month into that session of Congress, in late January, the famous Webster-Hayne debate took place under Calhoun's nose, with Webster sometimes directing insinuations at Calhoun, the anonymous author of that Exposition and Protest.

It seems that Robert Y. Hayne, a South Carolina, and one of the presenters of the protest, had stood up to declare a common cause with discontented westerners, represented by Thomas Hart Benton, who were protesting the high price ($1.25 per acre) of lands which the federal government held in all the westernmost states. Various westerners wanted to have the price drastically lowered, or the federal lands to all be given to the states containing the lands. Daniel Webster heard this speech, made a reply which (seemingly gratuitously ) severely attached nullification. Hayne replied, giving for the first time a clear outspoken defense of nullification in congress, and Webster then made a strong patriotic anti-nullification speech that was quite famous in the next few decades.

In late 1832, following the reelection of Andrew Jackson, nullification was put to the test. Some strategic shufflings of position took place among the South Carolinians; most notably Calhoun, by now thorougly at odds with Jackson and having nothing to lose, resigned the Vice Presidency a few months early, and was elected to the Senate (by the SC legislature - state legislatures always elected Senators until 1913 - see 17th Amemdment). He went to Washington with some fear of being hung as a traitor, but was not, and while the federal forces and the South Carolina Military performed threatening maneuvers, Henry Clay proposed a face-saving "compromise" tariff, which was favored by southerners mostly because it was not the compromise proposal that Jackson was backing. South Carolina then agreed not to nullify the new tariff, but they voted to nullify the "Force Bill", which Jackson had gotten passed to demonstrate his mandate against South Carolina; Jackson, of course, had no intention of using the force bill once SC agreed to live with the tariff.

Calhoun briefly joined the Whig party, initially a catch-all for all anti-Jacksonians, but as the Whig party became more of a nationalist, pro-internal improvements party, and Jackson faded out of the picture, he went back to the democrats. He became more and more of an outspoken defender of slavery, and denounced any infringement against slavery, or other southern concerns, as a threat to the Union. He died just after a speech was delivered on his behalf, in the very heated 1850 debates over the slave or non-slave status of new territories, mostly acquired in the Mexican-American war.


Calkins, Norman Allison 1822 - 1895:

Educator and promoter of the Pestalozzian method. Popularized it in a book in 1861.


Cambreleng, Churchill C.

An intimate associate of Martin Van Buren, he represented Albany Regency interests in New York City. Arriving there in 1802 from North Carolina, he became a successful merchant, working for a while with John Jacob Astor. Congressman from 1821-1839. Advocate of low tariffs.

Accompanied Van Buren on his tour of the South in spring 1827;part of Van Buren's building of the Democratic party, and strengthening of the old North-South alliance (James Hamilton Jr and William Drayton - two South Carolinians also accompanied them).

Connected with the sending off of Louis McLane, in summer, 1829,on the latter's successful trip as ambassador to England. McLane's main mission was to open up trade between the U.S. and the Brittish West Indies. One of the possible tactics for accomplishing this would have been to unilaterally lower tariffs, benefitting Brittish shipping and manufacturing interests. Cambreling was lobbying to tie to West Indies trade mission to lower tariffs.

"Short, stocky, earthy, and cynical, he expected the worst of human beings and loved to report the latest gossip to eager listeners such as Van Buren"

(source: Cole, MVB..., p93, 152 for Cambreling and VB's tour of South)


Cameron, Simon 1799 - 1889:

Helped forge and control the Republican party in Pennsylvania. As Secretary of War under Lincoln, he turned out to be a disaster. One of Lincoln's cabinet is supposed to have said he would steal anything but a red-hot stove, and when Cameron demanded a retraction, said Cameron would, after all, steal a red-hot stove. To keep from alienating Cameron's constituency, Lincoln made him Minister to Russia.


Camman, George Philip 1804 - 1863:

Inventor of the modern stethoscope. Practiced medicine in New York.


Campbell, Alexander (June 1786 - March 4, 1866):

Founder of the Disciples of Christ religious sect, also known as Campbellites. Edited Christian Baptist from 1823 - 1830, and Millennial Harbinger from 1830 - 1863 (after his break with the established sects).

Born in County Antrim Ireland, he came to the U.S. in 1809; settled first in Washington, PA., then pastor of church in Brush Run, PA. From 1813-27 he was an itinerant evangelist with no affiliation.

From 1827 (Harper's Ency.)or 1830 (Feller, Promise). Click here <== if you wish to point me to good sources on this or related matters.

Sources:Webster's Biog., Harper's Ency., Feller, Promise.


Campbell, George Washington 1769 - 1848:

Brought from Scotland to the U.S. as a child, he graduated from Princeton, became a lawyer, and served as U.S. secretary of the treasury (1814), Senator from Tennessee from 1815-18, and minister to Russia from 1818-21.


Campbell, James 1812-1893:

Postmaster General from 1853 - 57.


Campbell, Rev. John M. ? - ?

Pastor of the Presbyterian church in Washington DC during Jackson Admin. Did much to inflame the scandal over Peggy Eaton. (Source: Remini, Jackson, vol 2, p207ff)


Canby, Edwin Richard Sprigg 1817 - 1873:

West Point class of 1839 - served in the Mexican and Civil Wars. Killed by Indians in a feigned peace conference.


Cannon, George Quale 1829 - 1901:

Born in England, he was converted to Mormonism in 1840, and moved to the U.S. 2 years later, where he followed the Mormons to Nauvoo, IL, and later to Utah. Served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1873-81. Imprisoned for polygamy in 1888.


Cannon, Harriet Starr 1823 - 1896:

Founded and led the episcopal Sisterhood of St. Mary in 1865. Born in Charleston SC.


Capron, Horace 1804 - 1885:

U.S. Commisioner of agriculture in 1867-71. Born in Attleboro, MA.


Cardozo, Jacob Newton 1786 - 1873:

Editor of the (Charleston, SC) Southern Patriot from 1817-1845, and owner after 1823(?). He was a free trade spokesman, and wrote Notes on Political Economy in 1826 (he opposed Nullification, however). (Source: DAB) When Anne Royall visited Charleston in Spring 1830, he was very helpful and they both wrote good things about each other.


Carey, Henry Charles 1793 - 1879:

b.12/15,d.10/13
After helping run, and then heading, his father's (Matthew Carey) firm of Carey and Lea, he spent from 1835 to the end of his life writing about economic theory, and became widely recognized as the founder of an American school of economic thought. (Source: DAB)


Carey, Mathew 1760 - 1839:

Philadelphia publisher, writer, and promoter of the "American System".

Born in Dublin, Ireland and became an anti-British newspaper editor there. Fled to the U.S. where he settled in Philadelphia, founded the Pennsylvania Herald in 1785, and the Columbian Magazine in 1786. He became a very prominent publisher, and a well-known advocate of the "American System", of federally-backed internal improvements and protective tariffs on manufactured goods, to build up the U.S. as a manufacturing nation with a strong internal commerce.

In late 1814, at the low point for the U.S., of the War of 1812, he published the Olive Branch, aimed at stiffening American resolve, and reconciling the Federalists who had mostly opposed it, and the Republicans (Jeffersonians) who had prosecuted the war (though they obstructed earlier defensive measures). The book was praised by Thomas Jefferson, and quoted by Robert Y. Hayne (in an attack on the Federalists) in his famous Senate debate with Daniel Webster.


Carlile, John Snyder 1817 - 1878:

Lawyer and member of the House of Representatives from 1855 - 1857 and in 1861. He had much to do with West Virginias application for admission to the union (and exodus from the Confederation) by achieving separate statehood. He then served as Senator from the new state for the duration of the Civil War.


Carlile, Richard 1790 - 1843:

An English tinsmith, and radical publisher, and keeper of the flame of Thomas Paine's freethinking skepticism. His papers were prohibited and he was at times in prison, as were some of his followers and family.


Carlyle, Thomas (1795 - 1881):

Scottish philosophical essayist and Historian.

He met Emerson in 1833, before the latter was well known, and they corresponded thereafter. Emerson helped get some of Carlyle's books published in America.

Carlyle served the American Transcendentalists as an interpretor of Goethe, who did much to promote the basic concepts, and Kant.

His most famous works are a history of the French Revolution, and Sartor Sartoris (The Tailor Retailored), an autobiographical writing which discusses many creeds and systems of philosophy.


Carney, Julia (Maiden Name Fletcher) 1823 - 1908:

Author of a popular poem called Small Things, in 1845, and of other works. Born in Boston.


Carr, Benjamin 1769 - 1831:

An english-born musician who moved to the U.S. at 24, and settled in Philadelphia, where he made his career. Wrote an opera called The Archers in 1796, and Masses, Vespers, and Litanies in 1805.


Carroll, Charles 1737 - 1832:

Revolutionary leader, educated in Europe. Known as "Charles Carroll of Carrollton". Last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence, According to Philip Hone, whose visit to Carroll, in his last year, is among the selections from Hone's diary as edited by Allan Nevins.


Carroll, John 1735 - 1815:

A member of the Jesuit order who was born in Maryland, founded Georgetown College, and became the first archbishop of Baltimore in 1808.


Carson, Christopher (Or "Kit") 1809 - 1868:

A trapper, explorer, scout, and Indian agent. He ran away from home in 1826, and was part of a very early expedition to California from 1829 to 1831. In the 1840s, he was part of John C. Fremont's thorough exploration of that future state. Performed heroically in the Mexican-American war, and fought against uprisings of southwestern Indians during the Civil War.


Carter, James Gordon 1795 - 1849:

Pioneer advocate of early education. Born in Leominster, MA. Died in Chicago, IL. Quoted in Education in the U.S., A Documentary History, p1286. A teacher, legislator, and textboook writer, who did much toward the reform of New England common schools.
He also succeeded Theophilus Parsons as editor of the United States Literary Gazette.


Cartwright, Peter (1785 - 1872):

A methodist minister, a circuit rider and evangelist who began in the days of Bishop Francis Asbury, preaching in Kentucky (from 1803), and then in Illinois (from 1824).

He wrote a fascinating autobiography about his circuit riding and tent-revival days, also detailing the conferences which held together and drove the Methodist church as a powerful force for building up religion on the early frontier.

He was defeated for congress by Abraham Lincoln in 1846, the only time that the latter was sent to the capitol before his presidency. It is hard to picture this episode from Cartwright's point of view as he does not mention it in his Autobiography. Any comments or pointers? <== Click here to send mail.


Cary, Alice 1820 - 1871:

Poet born near Cincinnati. Sister of Phoebe (1824-1871).


Cary, Phoebe 1824 - 1871:

Poet born near Cincinnati. Sister of Phoebe (1820-1871).


Case, Leonard 1820 - 1880:

Lawyer and philanthropist who founded and endowed the Case School of Applied Science, in Cleveland Ohio, where he was born.


Casey, Joseph 1814 - 1879:

Published Pennsylvania State Reports on the decisions of the Pennsylvania supreme court; also known as Casey's Reports; from 1855 - 1861. Chief Justice (U.S. Supreme Court???) from 1863 - 1870.


Cass, Lewis 1782 - 1866:

Lawyer born in Exeter, NH. Was made governor of the Michigan Territory during the War of 1812, when Michigan was on a hostile fronteir. Apparently did a statesmanlike job. Served as Secretary of War in the reorganized (Post-Peggy Eaton) cabinet of Andrew Jackson. Minister to France under Van Buren (and for a year under Harrison/Tyler). He was a Senator from 1845-48 and 1849-57, broken by has unsuccessful run for president against "Old Rough and Ready" Taylor. He was secretary of state for all but part of the last year of Buchanan's term as president.


Cassin, John 1813 - 1869:

Ornithologist born in Deleware County, PA. Served as a scientist on Perry's expedition to Japan in 1853.


Celeste, Of ("Madam Celeste") 1815 - 1882:

A french dancer and actress who spend much time in the U.S.


Chadbourne, Paul Ansel 1823 - 1883:

Educator, born in North Berwick, Maine. From 1866, he was president of Massachusetts Agricultural College, of University of Wisconson, of Williams College, and again of Massachusetts Agricultural College.


CHAMBERS, Ezekiel Forman, 1788-1867

Maryland anti-Jackson Senator from 1826-1834.

Born in Chestertown, Md., February 28, 1788; was graduated from Washington College at Chestertown in 1805; studied law; was admitted to the bar in 1808 and commenced practice in Chestertown, Md.; served in the War of 1812, attaining the rank of brigadier general; member, State senate 1822; elected to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Edward Lloyd; reelected in 1831 and served from January 24, 1826, until his resignation on December 20, 1834; chairman, Committee on District of Columbia (Twenty-first through Twenty-third Congresses); presiding judge of the second judicial circuit of Maryland and judge of the court of appeals 1834-1851; unsuccessful Democratic candidate for Governor in 1864; died in Chestertown, Md., January 30, 1867; interment in Chester Cemetery.

Source: Biog Dir of Congress, which cites DAB.


Chambers, Robert 1802 - 1871:

Scottish author and publisher of many inexpensive educational works, including an encyclopedia of english literature, a general encyclopedia, and scientific works including one called Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation that, in 1843-6, partly anticipated Darwin's theory of evolution.


Chandler, Zachariah 1813-1879:

One of the founders of the Republican Party. Senator from Michigan from 1857 - 75, and Secretary of the Interior from 1875-77. Born in Bedford, NH.


Chang And Eng 1811 - 1874:

"Siamese twins" born in Siam (hence the phrase "Siamese twins"), became a sensation in America starting in 1829. Married two American sisters in 1843 after becoming U.S. citizens.


Channing, Walter 1786-1876:

Obstretician and medical educator. Professon of Harvard Medical School from 1815-54, and dean from 1819-47. Introduced ether as a form of anasthesia. Brother of William Ellery Channing Born in Newport, RI.


Channing, William Ellery 1780 - 1842:

The heart and soul of the unitarian movement from about 1819, he organized a formal association in 1825. Wrote against slavery, and was more friendly than many others of the Unitarian Association to the Transcendentalists, who were largely dissenting Unitarian ministers. Born in Newport, RI.


Channing, William Ellery 1818 - 1901:

Son of Walter (1786-76) and nephew of his namesake, was a poet and member of the transcendentalist circle. Born in Boston.

After early education at Round Hill School and the Boston Latin School, he was enrolled in Harvard in 1834, but ran away after a few months to write poetry at Curzon's Mill (upriver from Newburyport).

Lived in Concord most of his later life; married Ellen Fuller, the younger sister of Margaret Fuller; wrote for a while for Horace Greeley's Tribune; a devoted friend of Henry David Thoreau, and Thoreau's first biographer.


Channing, William Henry 1810-1884:

Unitarian minister and fellow-travelor of the transcendentalists, he was for a while resident at Brook Farm, and edited a socialist magazine called The Present. Served in the House of Representatives during the Civil War, from 1863 to 1863. Lived in Britain after 1866. Born in Boston.

Graduated Harvard in 1829, and the Harvard Divinity School in 1833.

Had a Unitarian pastorate in Cincinnati from 1838-1841 (He resigned after becoming convinced that the Gospels were unreliable as history, and Christianity not ordained by God).

Edited the Western Messenger from June 1839-March 1841.


Chapin, Chester William 1798 - 1883:

Railroad promoter, especially in the Connecticut River Valley. President of the Connecticut River Railroad from 1850-54 and of the Boston and Albany Railroad from 1854-77. Sat in the House of Representatives from 1875 to 1877. Born in Ludlow, MA.


Chapman, John ("Johnny Appleseed") 1775 - 1847:

Early settler of the Ohio River Valley. Very eccentric and religious, he wandered up and down, boarding where he could, and planting Apple trees wherever he went.


Chapman, John Gadsby 1808 - 1889:

Artist, whose _Baptism of Pocahontas is in the Capitol Rotunda. Born in Alexandria, VA.


Chapman, Maria Weston July 24, 1806 - July 12, 1885:

Anti-slavery activist; "principal Lieutenant" of Wm. L. Garrison.

Born Weymouth, MA; grew up on a farm; spent several years in England with a relative, a banker with Baring Bros. Returned to U.S. in 1828 and from then until 10/6/30 (when she married Henry Grafton Chapman, a successful young Boston merchant) served as principal of Ebenezer Bailey's Young Lady's High School.

She served as secretary of Garrison's New England Anti-slavery Society, and helped edit The Liberator. She was tall, beautiful, and had an formidable quality.


Chapman, Nathaniel 1780 - 1853:

Physician who practiced in Philadelphia, and taught for the University of Pennsylvania Medical School from 1810 - 1850. Edited the Journal of Medical and Physical Science, from 1820, and was the first president of the American Medical Association. Born in Summer Hill, VA.


Chase, Philander 1775 - 1852:

Organized Episcopal parishes in the Ohio region between 1817 and 1819, and was made bishop of the diocese of Ohio, serving from 1819 - 1831. Founded Kenyon College in 1824. He became Bishop of Illinois in 1835, and bishop of the Episcopal church in America from 1843. Uncle of Salmon P. Chase (1808 - 1873). Born in Cornish, NH.

Some notes on his life are in Jacksonian Miscellanies, #49. See also references for Salmon P. Chase.


Chase, Salmon Portland 1808 - 1873:

In his early years, a lawyer and activist against slavery, who defended runaway slaves in Cincinnati, a city much concerned with slavery, being a major port on the Ohio River, which formed the northern border of Kentucky. He was active in the Free Soil, and later Republican parties. Served in the Senate from 1849-55, and was governor of Ohio from 1855-59. He returned to the Senate in 1860, and then was brought into Lincoln's cabinet as secretary of the treasury from 1861 - 64. Chief justice of the Supreme Court from 1864 - 73.

His father died when he was 9, and he shortly afterwards went to live for three years with his uncle, Philander Chase.

Sources: Blue, Chase; Niven, Chase.


Chauncey, Isaac 1772 - 1840:

Commanded U.S. naval forces on Lakes Erie and Ontario during the war of 1812. Served as navy commissioner from 1821-4 and 1832 until his death. Born in Black Rock, CT.


Chauvenet, William 1820 - 1870:

Taught mathematics, astronomy, and navagation, and successfully promoted the idea of a U.S. Naval Academy between 1842 and 1842. Quite a young achiever. Born in Milford, PA; Yale class of 1840.


Cheney, Edna Dow Littlehale 1824 - 1904:

Abolitionist, feminist, and writer. Married to Seth Wells Cheney (1810-56).


Cheney, Oren Burbank 1816 - 1903:

Baptist minister, and founder of the Maine State Seminary in Lewiston, soon afterwards renamed Bates College. He presided over the institution from 1857- 1894. Born in NH.


Cheney, Seth Wells 1810 - 1856:

Engraver and artist. Married Edna Dow Littlehale (1824 - 1904) Born in South Manchester, CT.


Cheney, Ward 1813 - 1876:

Early silk manufacturer, beginning in 1838 with his brothers Seth and John. Born in South Manchester, CT.


Chester, Joseph Lemuel 1821 - 1882:

Began his career as a journalist in Philadelphia. Lived in London after 1865, where set up an organization to help Americans, particularly New Englanders, trace their English ancestry. Born in Norwich, CT.


Cheves, Langdon 1776 - 1857:

A South Carolinian from the Abbeville District (in the western uplands), best known as president of the Bank of the United States (BUS), from 1819-22. He severely reined in the irresponsible lending policies of his predecessor, and began the policy of using the BUS to force the many smaller banks in the country, who printed most of what passed for money in the U.S. in those days. Cheves tight money policies, following on the heels of his predecessor's failure to rein in the printing of "money" contributed to the depression of 1821, but did stabilize the bank.

He also served in the House of Representatives from 1810-15, during the last two years of which he replaced Henry Clay as Speaker of the House when the latter departed for Europe. He was also a moderating voice in South Carolina politics during the years of the Nullification Crisis.


Child, Francis James 1825 - 1896:

Philologist, and Harvard professor from 1851-96. Studied and wrote on English and Scottish ballads. Born in Boston.


Child, Lydia Marie Francis 1802 - 1880:

Abolitionist and editor of the important Anti-Slavery Standard from 1841-49. Author, in 1833, of _An Appeal in Favor of That Class of Americans Called Africans. She initially became known as an author through the publication of The American Frugal Housewife, which was full of home remedies and other advice for women running a household. Born in Medford MA, and married in 1828 to David Lee Child.


CHILTON, Thomas, 1798-1854

Representative from Kentucky; born near Lancaster, Garrard County, Ky., July 30, 1798; attended the common schools in Paris, Ky.; studied law; was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Owingsville, Bath County, Ky.; member of the State house of representatives in 1819; moved to Elizabethtown, Ky.; was a candidate for election to the Twentieth Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of William S. Young, but owing to an irregularity the votes of one county were eliminated and the credentials were issued to his opponent, John Calhoon; subsequently both candidates renounced all claim to the seat and petitioned the Governor for a new election; was duly elected to fill the resulting vacancy; reelected to the Twenty-first Congress and served from December 22, 1827, to March 3, 1831; unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1830 to the Twenty-second Congress; resumed the practice of law in Elizabethtown; presidential elector for Clay and Sergeant in 1832; elected as an Anti-Jacksonian to the Twenty-third Congress (March 4, 1833-March 3, 1835); declined to be a candidate for renomination in 1834; moved to Talladega, Ala., and resumed the practice of law; was pastor of a church in Hopkinsville, Ky.; president of the Alabama Baptist State Convention in 1841; abandoned the practice of law and became general agent of the Alabama convention; continued his ministerial duties in Montgomery, Greensboro, and Newbern, Ala.; moved to Houston, Tex., in 1851 and served as pastor of a Baptist church; died in Montgomery, Montgomery County, Tex., August 15, 1854; interment in the Old Cemetery.

Bibliography

Hannum, Sharon Elaine. ?Thomas Chilton-Lawyer, Politician, Preacher.? Filson Club Historical Quarterly 38 (April 1964): 97-114.

Source of above: Biog. Dir. of Am. Congress.

According to David Crockett's biography The Frontiersman by Mark Derr (p147-8), Chilton also "wrote many of Crockett's speeches and formal, circular letters back to his constituents [and] was also the ghostwriter for his autobiography", and there were those back home who thought Crockett was being manipulated. They roomed together at Mrs Ball's, and followed "exactly the same electoral path", serving from 1827-31 as Jacksonians, suffering defeat, and returning as anti-Jacksonians in 1833. He was supposed to have been a "physical giant", morally rigid, and constantly orating on the need for "reform and retrenchment".


Chitty, Joseph 1776 - 1841:

English jurist and writer of books on the practice of law which were widely read in America.


Chivers, Thomas Holley 1809 - 1858:

Poet involved in mutual recrimations with Edgar Allen Poe around 1850. Each accused the other of plagiarization. They had been associated from 1845-49. Born near Washington, GA.


Choate, Rufus 1799 - 1859:

Member of the House of representatives for Massachusetts from 1831-4; later in the Senate from 1841-5. He was widely known as an orator and statesman. Born in Essex, MA; Dartmouth class of 1819.


Choteau, Jean Pierre 1758 - 1849:

In 1796, established the first white settlement in the future state of Oklahoma.


Chouteau, Rene August 1749 - 1829:

Fur trader and pioneer who helped found St. Louis, MO.


Christophe, Henri 1767 - 1820:

King of Haiti from 1811-20. In the midst of a rebellion, committed suicide.


Church, Frederick Edwin 1826 - 1900:

Landscape painter. Did a famous painting of Niagra Falls which is in the Corcoran Gallery in Washington. Born in Hartford, CT.


Church, William, (?):

Invented an typesetting machine, patented in England in 1822.
 


Cilley, Bradbury, 1760-1831

Representative from New Hampshire; born in Nottingham, Rockingham County, N.H., on February 1, 1760; attended the common schools; engaged in agricultural pursuits; appointed by President John Adams as United States marshal for the district of New Hampshire on March 19, 1798, and served until May 3, 1802; elected as a Federalist to the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Congresses (March 4, 1813-March 3, 1817); colonel and aide on the staff of Governor Gillman 1814-1816; retired from public life; died in Nottingham, N.H., December 17, 1831; interment in the General Joseph Cilley Burying Ground in Nottingham Square.

Uncle of Jonathan Cilley and Joseph Cilley.

Source: Biog. Dir. of Am. Congress.


Cilley, Jonathan, 1802-1838

Representative from Maine; born in Nottingham,Rockingham County, N.H., July 2, 1802; attended Atkinson Academy, New Hampshire; was graduated from New Hampton Academy and later, in 1825, from Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine; studied law under John Ruggles; was admitted to the bar in 1828 and commenced practice in Thomaston, Knox County, Maine; editor of the Thomaston Register 1829-1831; member of the State house of representatives 1831-1836 and served as speaker in 1835 and 1836; elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-fifth Congress and served from March 4, 1837, until February 24, 1838, when he was killed in a duel on the Marlboro Pike, near Washington, D.C., by William J. Graves, a Representative from Kentucky; interment in Cilley Cemetery, Thomaston, Maine.

Nephew of Bradbury Cilley and brother of Joseph Cilley.
Source of above: Biog. Dir. of Am. Congress.

His father was Greenleaf Cilley, who died in 1808, leaving four sons and three daughters.  His grandfather, Joseph Cilley commanded a regiment in the American Revolution.


Cilley, Joseph, 1791-1887

Senator from New Hampshire; born in Nottingham, Rockingham County, N.H., January 4, 1791; attended the common schools and was graduated from Atkinson Academy, New Hampshire; engaged in agricultural pursuits; served in the New Hampshire Regiment, United States Infantry 1812-1816, attained the brevetted rank of captain; quartermaster of New Hampshire in 1817; division inspector in 1821; aide-de-camp to the Governor in 1827; elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Levi Woodbury and served from June 13, 1846, until March 3, 1847; unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1846; retired to his farm in Nottingham, N.H., and died there September 16, 1887; interment in the General Joseph Cilley Burying Ground in Nottingham Square.

Nephew of Bradbury Cilley and brother of Jonathan Cilley.

Years of Service: 1846-1847; Party: Liberty

Bibliography:
Scales, John. Life of General Joseph Cilley. New Hampshire: Standard Book Co., 1921.

Source: Biog. Dir. of Am. Congress.


CLAIBORNE, John Francis Hamtramck 1809-1884

Nephew of William Charles Cole Claiborne and Nathaniel Herbert Claiborne, grandnephew of Thomas Claiborne [1749-1812], great-grandfather of Herbert Claiborne Pell, Jr., great-great-grandfather of Claiborne de Borda Pell, and great-great granduncle of Corinne Claiborne Boggs), a Representative from Mississippi; born in Natchez, Adams County, Miss., April 24, 1809; attended school in Virginia; studied law; was admitted to the bar in 1825 (at age 16?) and commenced practice at Natchez, Miss.; member of the State house of representatives 1830-1834; moved to Madison County, Miss.; elected as a Jacksonian to the Twenty-fourth Congress (March 4, 1835-March 3, 1837); presented credentials as a Member-elect to the Twenty-fifth Congress and served from July 18, 1837, until February 5, 1838, when the seat was declared vacant; engaged in newspaper work in Natchez, Miss.; moved to New Orleans, La., in 1844 and resumed newspaper interests; appointed United States timber agent for Louisiana and Mississippi in 1853; author of several historical works; returned to his estate, ?Dumbarton,? near Natchez, Miss., and died there on May 17, 1884; interment in Trinity Churchyard, Natchez, Miss.

Bibliography

DAB; Williams, Frederich D. ?The Career of J.F.H. Claiborne, States? Rights Unionist.? Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1953.

Source: Biog. Dir. of Am. Congress.


CLAIBORNE, Nathaniel Herbert 1777-1859

Brother of William Charles Cole Claiborne, nephew of Thomas Claiborne [1749-1812], uncle of John Francis Hamtramck Claiborne, and great-great-great granduncle of Corinne Claiborne Boggs), a Representative from Virginia; born in Chesterfield, Sussex County, Va., November 14, 1777; attended a local academy; engaged in agricultural pursuits; member of the State house of delegates 1810-1812; served in the State senate 1821-1825; an executive councilor; elected to the Nineteenth and Twentieth Congresses, elected as a Jacksonian to the Twenty-first through Twenty-third Congresses, and elected as an Anti-Jacksonian to the Twenty-fourth Congress (March 4, 1825-March 3, 1837); chairman, Committee on Elections (Twenty-second through Twenty-fourth Congresses); unsuccessful candidate in 1836 for reelection to the Twenty-fifth Congress; resumed agricultural pursuits; died near Rocky Mount, Franklin County, Va., August 15, 1859; interment in the family cemetery of his Claibrook estate near Rocky Mount, Va.

Source: Biog. Dir. of Am. Congress.


Claiborne, William Charles Coles 1775 - 1817:

Brother of Nathaniel Herbert Claiborne, nephew of Thomas Claiborne [1749-1812], uncle of John Francis Hamtramck Claiborne. Representative from Tennessee and a Senator from Louisiana; born in Sussex County, Va., in 1775; moved in early youth to New York City; studied law in Richmond, Va.; was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Sullivan County, Tenn.; delegate to the State constitutional convention from Sullivan County in 1796; appointed judge of the superior court in 1796; elected as a Republican from Tennessee to the Fifth and Sixth Congresses, and served from November 23, 1797, to March 3, 1801, in spite of the fact that he was still initially under the constitutional age requirement of twenty-five years; appointed Governor of the Territory of Mississippi in 1801; appointed in October 1803 one of the commissioners to take possession of Louisiana when purchased from France and served as Governor of the Territory of Orleans 1804-1812; Governor of Louisiana 1812-1816; elected as a Democrat from Louisiana to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1817, until his death, before the assembling of Congress, in New Orleans, La., November 23, 1817; interment in Basin St. Louis Cemetery; reinterment in Metairie Cemetery.

Bibliography

DAB; Hatfield, Joseph T. William Claiborne: Jeffersonian Centurion in the American Southwest. Lafayette: University of Southwest Louisiana Press, 1976; Winters, John D. ?William C.C. Claiborne: Profile of a Democrat.? Louisiana History 10 (Summer 1969): 189-210.

Source: Biog. Dir. of Am. Congress:

I believe current work on WCCC is being done by Marion Winship.


Clairmont, Clara Mary Jane 1798 - 1879:

Mother of Byron's daughter Allegra. English.


Clark, Alvan 1804 - 1887:

His lens making firm made huge (for the time) telescope lenses, including a 26 inch one for the U.S. Naval Observatory and also for the University of Virginia. His first 20 adult years (1824-44) were spent as an Engraver and painter. He was also an astronomer himself. Born in Ashfield, MA.


Clark, Lewis Gaylord 1808 - 1873:

Editor of Knickerbocker Magazine in New York from 1833-61. Phillip Hone (p 82) compares it unfavorably to the Mirror. Twin brother of Willis Gaylord Clark.

One of the founders of the Century Club, and a very popular character in New York society.


Clark, Willis Gaylord 1808 - 1841:

b.10/5,d.6/12
"Foremost Philadelphia poet of his day" called by Poe "almost the first poet to render the poetry of religion attractive"; editor of Relf's Philadelphia Gazette, which he changed from Jacksonian to Whig. Twin brother of Lewis Gaylord Clark, who for decades edited the Knickerbocker.

Contributed a witty column called "Ollapodianna" to the Knickerbocker.

Both he and his wife died at an early age of consumption.


Clark, William 1770 - 1838:

One of the leaders of the famous Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1804-6, which Thomas Jefferson commissioned to explore from the Missisippi to the Pacific Ocean. Born in Caroline County, VA.


Clarke, James Freeman 1810 - 1888:

A Unitarian minister and one of the transcendentalist circle who, in the 1830s lived in Ohio and published the Western Messenger, from which Perry Miller takes some extracts in his anthology of the Transcendentalists. Born in Hanover, NH, he graduated Harvard in 1829, and returned to preach from 1841 until his death, with a lapse between 1850 and 1854.


Clarke, McDonald 1798 - 1842:

Called the "Mad Poet". Born in Bath, ME.


Claudet, Antoine Francios Jean 1797 - 1867:

A French-born pioneer of photography in England.


Clay, Cassius Marcellus 1810 - 1903:

A vocal and well known abolitionist in Kentucky. Minister to Russia from 1861-2 and 1863-9.


Clay, Henry (April 12, 1777 - June 29, 1852):

Born in Virginia in modest circumstances, he studied law in Richmond, under the famous George W__?__. He went to Lexington Kentucky to seek his fortune, and was elected to the state House of Representatives in 1803. He was elected to fill a vacancy caused by a resignation in the U.S. Senate, and served from Nov. 19, 1806 to March 3, 1807, despite being underaged according to the constitution. A second resignation in the Senate led to another short term there from Jan. 4, 1810 to March 3, 1811.

His real prominence began in the U.S. House of Representatives, where he was almost immediately made Speaker of the House. This strange occurrence had something to do with his outspokenness and leadership in promoting war with Great Britain on the eve of the War of 1812, and the reluctance of representatives with more seniority to pit themselves against the brilliant, domineering, and half mad John Randolph, an Anglophile and strong opponent of the movement to declare war. The majority faction wanted war, put Clay in the speakership, and were not disappointed with the results.

Clay resigned the Senate in January 1814, and was appointed to help negotiate peace with Britain, along with John Quincy Adams and Abert Gallatin. He played for high stakes in the negotiations, holding out for more than some of his partners thought feasible, successfully.

He served in the House of Representatives again from March 5, 1815 to March 3, 1821, and again from March 3, 1823 to March 6, 1825, being elected to the speakership again during most of both of these intervals. In 1820 Clay, with some dazzling political footwork, forced got the congress to ratify the "Missouri Compromise", allowing Missouri into the Union as a slave state, which many of the north were dead-set against, while also adding one northern state (Maine, by splitting off, from Massachusetts) which preserved the ballance in the Senate. The package also included the agreement not to admit any more slave states west of Missouri above an extension of the Mason-Dixon line.

He campaigned for the presidency in 1824 in a four way race with John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, and William H. Crawford. Receiving the smallest number of electoral votes, he did much to strong-arm the House of Representatives into voting for Adams. Adams then selected Clay as his Secretary of State. In the barely established political traditions of the United States, this office was then viewed as a stepping stone to the presidency.

This was, in terms of hopes for the presidency, Clay's undoing. Though he probably did what his judgement said was right for the country, he was very high handed about it. It seems certain that Jackson would have won in any two man election among the candidates of that year, and Clay's state of Kentucky certainly wouldn't have made Adams their second choice, though Clay delivered their vote to Adams anyway. Many saw it as an act of corruption, for which "bargain" and "coalition" became code words. He had, for one thing, run quite a slashing anti-Adams campaign himself. At any rate, Jackson labeled him the "Judas of the West", and reiterated that charge through the 1828 election against Adams, and the 1832 election against Clay himself, both of which Jackson won.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

MUCH MORE TO BE ADDED LATER.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Clayton, John Middleton 1796 - 1856:

Senator from Delaware from 1829-36. Fought against Jackson's dismantling of the bank, but supported Jackson in the Nullification crisis. Again a senator from 1845-49, and secretary of state from 1849-50. Negotiaated Clayton-Bulwer treaty with Britain which laid the diplomatic groundwork for the Panama Canal. In the senate again from 1853 to 1856. Born in Dagsborough, DE. Yale class of 1815.


Cleaveland, N. (Nehemiah), 1796-1877:

Educator, and author of History of Bowdoin College. Nephew of Parker C.

Cleaveland, Parker 1780 - 1858:

Gradated Harvard 1799.  After studying law and theology, he received a tutorship from Harvard in mathematics and natural philosophy in 1803; then was invited to a professorship of the same in 1805, where he stayed until his death. He expanded his teaching to include chemistry and mineralogy, and wrote the first American book on mineralogy, Elementary Treatise on Mineralogy and Geology, an 1816. Born in Byfield, MA.


Clemens, Samuel Langhorne 1835 - 1910:

Known as Mark Twain. Started to become famous shortly after the Civil War. He was a journeyman printer from 1847-55, and a steamboat pilot on the Mississippi from 1857-61. Born in Florida, MO, and mostly grew up in Hannibal MO.


Clemson, Thomas Green 1807 - 1888:

Mining engineer. His will endowed Clemson College in South Carolina. Born in Philadelphia.


Clerc, Laurent 1785 - 1869:

Born deaf in France, he became an educator of the deaf. Came to America in 1817 with Thomas Gallaudet, and founded conducted (1817 - 58) what is now called the American School for th Deaf, in Hartford, CT.


Clevinger, Shobal Vail 1812 - 1843:

A sculptor know for his busts of great American figures such as Daniel Webster and Henry Clay. Born near Middletown, OH.


Clifford, Nathan 1803 - 1881:

Member of the House of Representatives from 1839-43, U.S. Attorney General from 1846-8. Served on the Supreme Court from 1858 until the year of his death, 1881. Born in Rumney, NH.


Clinton, De Witt (Mar. 2, 1769 - Feb. 11, 1828):

Best known for his vision and energy in promoting the Erie Canal, a project of enormous benefit to New York State.

Also governor of New York State 1817-1822 and 1824-27.

mayor of New York City 1803-7, 1809-10 and 1811-14, candidate for president in 1812, founder and one of the first presidents of the Literary and Philosophical Society in New York.

Though allied for a very short period, he and Martin Van Buren became bitter rivals; yet they often agreed in principal. Van Buren, unlike some of his colleagues, eventually threw his support strongly in favor of the canal. Probably Van Buren saw him as some kind of aristocrat, and symbol of the old personality politics; and as a man who ill-served his friends.

Van Buren and Clinton both supported Andrew Jackson, which Van Buren saw as a problem; i.e. who was going to be seen as senior statesman of New York, and as deliverer of the votes to Jackson (and receiver of the rewards of doing so). His death, early in the election year of 1828 left Van Buren free to redouble his efforts for Jackson, with the full expectation of being handsomely rewarded.

Born in Little Britain, Orange County NY.


Clymer, George E. 1754 - 1834:

Invented the "Columbian" printing press.


Cobb, Howell 1815 - 1868:

A Georgian and strong advocate of sucession, who became a major general in the Confederate army.Served in the House of Representatives from 1843-51, was Speaker of the House the last two of those years. He was governor of his state from 1851-53, and returned to the House from 1855-7. Served as U.S. Secretary of the Treasury under Buchanan from 1857-60.


Cobden, Richard 1804 - 1865:

English "Apostle of Free Trade".


Coffee, John ? - 1833:


Coffin, Capt. Abel 1790 - 1837

Ship captain who lived in Newburyport, and who became for a while the guardian (and taskmaster) for the "Siamese Twins" Chang and Eng. (The Two, p143.)


Coffin, George:

Co-owner, with Reuben Coffin, of the "Big Shop", which was used for the large anti-slavery meeting at which Frederick Douglass came to the attention of William Lloyd Garrison.

Member of a large and prominent Quaker family of Nantucket.


Coffin, Reuben:

Co-owner, with George Coffin, of the "Big Shop", which was used for the large anti-slavery meeting at which Frederick Douglass came to the attention of William Lloyd Garrison.

Member of a large and prominent Quaker family of Nantucket.


Coffin, William C.:

A bookkeeper and resident of Nantucket, MA, and anti-slavery activist who had a hand, in 1841, in introducing Frederick Douglass to a wide audience.

Member of a large and prominent Quaker family of Nantucket.


Cogswell, Joseph Green 1786 - 1871:

Born in Ipswitch, MA. Educator, bibliographer and librarian. After studying law with Fisher Ames, and wandering about Europe for a few years, he tried the practice of law, then tutoring at Harvard. In 1815-20, he again went to Europe, this time with Edward Everett and George Ticknor, to study, and observe European education, especially at Gottingen; afterwards, he carried on a long correspondence with Goethe. Librarian and professor of Mineralogy at Harvard from 1820-23, he next joined with George Bancroft to establish and run the Round Hill School, until 1834. From 1836-38, he lived with Samuel Ward, and tutored his children. Having met with John Jacob Astor in this period, he helped Astor realize his plan to establish a great public library, and for several years served as librarian of the Astor Library. Born in Ipswich, MA.


Coke, Sir Edward 1552 - 1634:

Nearly as much read by American lawyers as Blackstone.


Colburn, Warren 1793 - 1833:

Wrote First Lessons in Arithmetic, on the Plan of Pestalozzi, which remained a standard textbook for a long time after. Born in Dedham, MA.


Colby, Gardner 1810 - 1879:

Manufacturer of woolen goods, and later a railroad magnate. His endowment to Waterville Literary College lead to its being renamed Colby College. Born in Bowdoinham, Maine


Cole, Thomas 1801 - 1848:

English born landscape painter, and founder of the 'Hudson River School' not a literal school, but a style of landscape painting. Given restrained praise by Phillip Hone (p 93).


Coleman, William Tell 1824 - 1893:

Pioneer in California, and manufacturer of (twenty mule team?) borax.


Coleridge, Samuel Taylor 1772 - 1834:

English poet, philosopher, and critic. Wrote Aids to Reflection, a work which helped stimulate the transcendentalist movement in America.


Coles, Abraham 1813 - 1891:

Poet. Author of My Navive Land.


Colfax, Schuyler 1823 - 1885:

Member of House of Representatives for Indiana from 1855-69. Speaker in the last 6 years of his service there. Vice President from 1969-73 under Grant, but was involved in a financial scandal which ended his political career. Born in New York City, but moved to Indiana at age 13.


Colgate, William 1783 - 1857:

Brought to the U.S. from England as a child. Became a hugely successful manufacturer, starting as a candle and soap maker. Colgate University (previously called Madison U.) in Hamilton, NY, was renamed for him.


Collamer, Jacob 1791 - 1865:

Served in the House of Representatives from 1843-9. Postmaster general in 1849. Senator from 1855-65. Born in Troy, NY.


Collins, John A. ? - ?:

Was with Charles Lenox Remond on an anti-slavery tour of Ireland, and also with him when the Irish anti-slavery petition with 60,000 names was presented at Faneuil Hall, Boston. (Source: p9-10, Ignatiev, How the Irish Became White). Collins also accompanied Remond and Frederick Douglass on western anti-slavery speaking tours, where Remond and Douglass demanded that he stop mixing up the Fourierist socialist cause with anti-slavery. This got Collins dismissed as general agent of the Anti-slavery society by Maria Weston Chapman, the secretary of the society. Abby Kelley had also joined the fray, siding with Douglass and Remond.


Collyer, Robert 1823 - 1912:

Born in England, he was a Methodist lay minister and professional blacksmith in Shoemakertown. Became a Unitarian minister in 1859, and served for twenty years in Chicago after that, then from 1879-1903, served the Church of the Messiah in New York City.


Colt, Samuel 1814 - 1862:

Invented the first "revolver", or pistol with a revolving barrell holding several bullets. Born in Hartford CT.


Colton, Gardner Quincy 1814 - 1898:

Demonstrated the use of laughing gas as an anaesthetic, which was soon taken up by the dentist Horace Wells. Brother of Walter (1797-1851).


Colton, Walter 1797 - 1851:

Congregational minister and chaplain of the navy from 1831-51; also wrote books and published a newspaper in California. Born in Rutland County, VT. Brother of Garner Quincy (1814-98).


Combe, George 1788 - 1858:

Founded the Prenological Society in 1820, and Phrenological Journal in 1823. Resident of Scotland, but toured and lectured in the U.S., helping to make phrenology (a pseudo-science of determining character by the shape of the skull) immensely popular in the U.S. Ronald G. Walters in American Reformers 1815-1860, discusses who so many Americans, caught up in the widespread optimism and reformism of the period were also taken with Phrenology.


Comstock, Henry Tompkins Paige 1820 - 1870:

Prospector born in Canada. Famous for discovering the "Comstock lode" in Nevada around 1859. He did not profit much from it.


Conant, Hannah O'Brien 1809 - 1865:

Wrote The English Bible in 1856, a popular book tracing the history of English Biblical translations. Wife of Thomas Jefferson Conant.


Conant, Thomas Jefferson 1802 - 1891:

Biblical scholar. Middlebury College class of 1823. Married to Hannah O'Brien Conant, who became a popular writer, also on the bible.


Cone, Spencer Houghton 1785 - 1855:

A founder of the American and Foreign Bible Society, and its president from 1837 - 50. President of the American Bible Union from 1850 until his death. A Baptist minister, born in Princeton, NJ.


Considerant, Victor Prosper 1809 - 1893:

Leading desciple of Fourier. Tried to set up a Phalanx near Dallas TX between 1855 and 57.


Conway, Moncure Daniel 1832 - 1907:

Graduate of Dickinson College in 1849, and the Harvard Divinity School in 1854. He became a very active abolitionist, edited The Dial from 1860-61, and Commonwealth in 1862. Near the end of the Civil War he moved to England to preach.


Cooke, John Easton 1830 - 1886:

Wrote novels, Leather Stocking and Silk, and The Virginia Comedians, both in 1854, and The Wearing of the Gray in 1867. Born in Winchester, VA.


Cooke, Josiah Parsons 1827 - 1848:

Prominent chemist (Harvard '48) who investigated the atomic weights of the elements. Born in Boston.

Cooper, James Fenimore 1789 - 1851: A novelist, extremely popular in his day, and still popular today. After an education at Yale from 1803-5, and spending several of his youthful years in the U.S. navy (until 1811). Though indendently wealthy, he started to write in 1820, achieved success with The Spy in 1821, The Pioneers in 1823, and many more of the Leatherstocking series, of which the most famous was The Last of the Mohicans. Born in Burlington, NJ. His father was a pioneer entrepreneur in western NY state, for whom Cooperstown is named.


Cooke, Philip Pendleton 1816 - 1850:

Writer of romantic verse. Brother of John Easton Cooke.


Cooper, James Fenimore 1789 - 1851:

Immensely popular novelist and travel writer.


Cooper, Peter 1791 - 1883

Manufacturer and inventor, philanthropist, born in New York.

After success as a glue manufacturer, he and partners, in 1828 started the Canton Iron Works in Baltimore, MD, where the first American-built locomotive was built. He made numerous inventions, flourished as a manufacturer.

He founded or endowed the Cooper Union (or Institute) in New York City, which provided free adult education courses in science, technology and art, where Lincoln gave a speech in 1860 that did much to enhance his chances of being nominated for president. Promoted and backed the laying of the transatlantic cable.

In 1876 was a third party (Greenback ticket) candidate for President.

Source: DAB.


Cooper, Thomas 1759 - 1839:

b.10/22,d.5/11
An English radical and physician who migrated to America in 1794 with his friend Joseph Priestley. He became associated with the Jeffersonians and was sentenced under the Sedition Law to 6 months and a $400 fine (refunded, with interest, to his heirs after his death). In the early 1800s, finding his views did not agree with any of the political factions of the time where he was (Pennsylvania), he got out of politics. His friendship with Priestley had allowed him to learn a great deal about chemistry, which he now took up. He soon distinguished himself, and after teaching in PA, was hired by South Carolina College in Columbia, SC, where, from 1820 - 34, he taught chemistry, mineralogy, and political economy there, and served as president of the college for most of that period. His religious views were outspokenly liberal.

Though in England, he had fought against the slave trade, he became, in South Carolina, a famous advocate of states rights and defender of slavery, forever identified with the phrase "calculate the value of the union". (Source: DAB, May, Enlightenment in America).


Cooper, William 1754 - 1809:

Born poor, he was a wheelwright in his early years, but after an advantageous marriage, he tried various business ventures, as well as joining the Library Society of Burlington, which enabled him to educate himself by reading voraciously for several years.

In the late 1780s, he tried his wings as a land entrepreneur, which resulted in the founding of Cooperstown, NY. He tried other land promotions, and unsuccessfully tried to foster a sugar-maple industry. He became a judge, and a mostly behind the scenes politician -- though a congressman from 1795-7 and 1799-1801.

He became very committed to being part of gentile society and the Federalist party, though he often contradicted this with his rough and boisterous ways. He tried, sometimes very effectively, to look after "his people", but also very determinedly tried to tell them how to vote. His business dealings were impulsive and sloppy, resulting in much grief for his partners, family, and the settlers who bought from him.

Short but burly, and impressive looking, with a large head.

He was the model for judge Marmaduke Temple in J.F. Cooper's The Pioneers.

Source: Taylor, William Cooper's Town (which includes pictures of him) and DAB.


Copley, John Singleton (Baron Lyndhurst) 1772 - 1830:

Son of the famous painter (who spent 40 years in England), he was lord chancellor of England from 1827-30, 1834-5, and 1841-6. Born in Boston.


Copley, John Singleton 1738 - 1815:

An immensely popular and skillful portrait painter. Born and worked in Boston until 1775, when he moved to London.


Corcoran, William Wilson 1798 - 1888:

Founded the Corcoran Art Gallery in Washington, DC after a successful business career. Born nearby in Georgetown, DC.


Corliss. George Henry 1817 - 1888:

Invented and manufactured the Corliss engine. Born in Easton, NY.


Cornell, Ezra 1807 - 1874:

Helped Samuel Morse develop a way of getting electrical signals to travel for miles on telephone poles without excessive loss of current. Organized Western Union Telegraph. Benefactor and founder of Cornell University (opened in 1868). Born in Westchester Landing, NY.


Corwin, Thomas 1794 - 1865:

Served in U.S. House of Representatives from Ohio from 1831-40 and 1859-61. Governor from 1840-2. Secretary of the treasury 1850-3. Ambassador to Mexico 1861-4.


Coulomb, Charles Augustin De 1736 - 1806:

Performed much early research on electricity and magnetism.


Cox, Samuel Sullivan 1824 - 1889:

Member House of Representatives from Ohio from 1857-65. Represented New York State from 1869-89 with brief intervals out of office. Advocate of reforms in the tariff and civil service.


Coxe, Arthur Cleveland 1818 - 1896:

Episcopal minister elevated to bishop of Western New York in 1865. Born in Mendham, NJ.


CRAIG, Robert, 1792-1852

Representative from Virginia 1829-33 and 1835-41; born near Christiansburg, Montgomery County, Va., in 1792; attended the rural schools, Washington College (now Washington and Lee University), Lexington, Va., and was graduated from Lewisburg Academy in Greenbrier County; engaged in planting; served in the State house of delegates in 1817, 1818, and again in 1825-1829; member of the Virginia Board of Public Works 1820-1823; elected as a Jacksonian to the Twenty-first and Twenty-second Congresses (March 4, 1829-March 3, 1833); unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1832 to the Twenty-third Congress; resumed agricultural pursuits; elected as a Jacksonian to the Twenty-fourth Congress and reelected as a Democrat to the Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth Congresses (March 4, 1835-March 3, 1841); chairman, Committee on Revolutionary Claims (Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth Congresses); was not a candidate for renomination in 1840; moved to Roanoke County, Va., in 1842 and engaged in agricultural pursuits; again a member of the State house of delegates 1850-1852; died on his estate, ?Green Hill,? near Salem, Roanoke County, Va., November 25, 1852; interment in the family burying ground at ?Green Hill.?

Source: Biog. Dir. of Am. Congress.


Cramp, William 1807 - 1879:

Est. William Cramp Shipbuilding Co. in 1830; was president until 1879. Born in Philadelphia.


Cranch, Christopher Pearse 1813 - 1892:

Unitarian minister from 1832-42. Made living as artist and poet after 1843. He was one of the Transcendentalist circle. Born in Alexandria VA. Son of William (1769-1855)


Cranch, William 1769 - 1855:

Distinguished legal scholar, and chief justice of the circuit court of DC from 1805-55. Father of Christopher Pearse (1813 - 1892).


Crandall, Prudence 1803 - 1889:

(duplicate?)


Crawford, Thomas 1813 - 1857:

A great American-born sculptor though he remained in Rome for most of his life, after studying with Thorvaldsen in 1835. Born in New York City.


Crawford, William Harris (Feb 24, 1772 - Sep 15, 1834):

Candidate for President in 1824. His candidacy, under the rubric of "Old Republicanism" or "Radicalism" (states rightist and anti-tariff) was managed by Martin Van Buren.

In 1830-31, he helped bring about the alienation between Andrew Jackson, and his first Vice President, John C. Calhoun, by furnishing documentation of (then Secretary of War) Calhoun's call for disciplining of (the then general) Andrew Jackson.

He evidently had great personal charm, and was praised by some as a most generous generous statesman, and called a complete political hack by others.

U.S. Senator 11/7/07 - 3/23/13.

Minister to France 4/3/13 - 4/22/15.

Secretary of War 8/1/15 - ?.

Secretary of the Treasury 10/22/16 - 3/7/25.


Creighton, Edward 1802 - 1874:

Businessman and, together with John Andrew Creighton (1831 - 1907), benefactor of Creighton University.


Crerar, John 1827 - 1889:

Businessman who provided endowment for a library in Chicago named after him. Born in New York City.


Crittenden, George Bibb 1812 - 1880:

Confederate officer in the Civil war. Defeated at Mill Springs, KY in 1862. Son of John J. Crittenden, and brother of Thomas Leonidas, a union major general.


Crittenden, John Jordan 1787 - 1863:

Senator from Kentucky 1817-19, and for nearly all the years from 1835-61, excepting 1841 and 1850-53 when he was Attorney General, and 1848-50 when he was governor of Kentucky. Crittenden, who was to have two sons on opposing sides in the Civil War, introduced the "Crittenden Compromise" to try to stave off the war.


Crittenden, Thomas Leonidas 1819 - 1893:

Major general on the union side of the Civil war - his brother George Bibb Crittenden being on the Confederate side. Son of John J. Crittenden.


Crocker, Charles 1822 - 1888:

Headed up the construction of the Central Pacific Railroad; president of the Southern Pacific RR. Born in Troy NY, he settled in California in the early 50s.


Crockett, David (1786-1836):

Folk hero, in his own and later times, congressman from Western Tennessee from 1827-31 and 1833-35, and the most famous "martyr" of the Alamo.

He was a colorful self-promoter, who spoke entertainingly with a kind of rough homespun eloquence. He came to congress representing the squatters and other settlers at the edge of the frontier. He loved hunting, especially bear hunts (bears were hunted for food and fur, and because they preyed on pigs and other farmers' stock). Crocket made bear hunting a part of his public image.

He was a maverick in politics, supporting Andrew Jackson on some issues, but opposing him, sometimes very vocally, on other issues, such as Jackson's massive Indian removals, and the dismantling of the national bank.

In 1831, the Jackson political machine in Tennessee got the "disloyal" Crockett defeated. He came back to Congress in 1833. He was adopted and promoted by the Whig (or anti-Jackson) party, who were glad to have a folksy Tennessean who would sharply criticize Jackson, and who had beaten Jackson's machine in Tennessee with their help.

Some people were even promoting him for the presidency. If Jackson could win the presidency as a rough, plain-spoken "man of the people", despite his large plantation and dozens of slaves, why not a real frontier farmer and bear hunter who only owned a couple of slaves (slaves were not a part of Crocket's public image)? One answer could be that Jackson had led armies, served as state prosecuter and state Supreme Court Judge, and he had a profound natural dignity, whereas Crockett had no executive experience, and could never resist being a clown.

At any rate, Crockett went so far as to write (or take credit for writing) a scurrilous biography of the Democratic contender (and next president) Martin Van Buren. Following his last session in congress, Crockett toured the Northeast, and was greeted by huge (no doubt orchestrated) crowds, and continued to turn out autobiographical writing, with the help of ghost writers.

Shortly thereafter, the Jackson forces managed to defeat his run for reelection to congress, which wiped out any chance of a run for the presidency.

His folk hero status was bolstered by a comic play, in which "Colonel Nimrod Wildfire" was a surrogate for Crockett, "autobiographical" writings, some written with his help and some not, by the "Davy Crockett Almanacs" which were popular for years. Finally, there was his dramatic death trying to defend the indefensible Alamo against Mexican forces in the revolution which the former province of Mexico, Texas, an independent nation (10 years later it became a state).

Early Life:

One of several children of a poor Tennessee tavern owner, Crockett left home as a young teenager and spent a few years working with wagoneers and cattle drovers.

He served, most notably as a scout, under Andrew Jackson in the war with the Creek Indians, who were loosely allied with the British in the War of 1812.

He became a farmer and community leader in the pioneer settlements of Western Tennessee. He also had various commercial projects such as grain and lumber mills. Once, in true fronteir entrepreneurial style, he collected a gang of laborers to manufacture a huge quantity of barrell staves on the spot in the wilderness, and then build two flatboats to take them a downriver metropolis. The boats smashed up and were lost in Memphis Tennesssee, and according to the story, he wound up in Memphis stark naked, having lost his clothes being pulled through a small hole in the boat's cabin. Characteristically, he seems to have told this story on himself for laughs. He was elected colonel in the local militia, and later sent to the state legislature, from whence he was sent to Congress to become a national figure.


Cropsey, Jaspar Francis 1823 - 1900:

Landscape painter. His Niagra Falls and Sunset, Lake George are well known and were placed in the Brooklyn Museum and the New York Public Library, respectively. Born in Rossville, NY.


Croswell, Edwin (????)

One of Van Buren's Albany Regency. Editor, from 1823, of the Albany Argus. Called by political enemies and especially Thurlow Weed, "Miss Croswell".


Crowfield, Christopher:

Pseudonym for Harriet Beecher Stowe.


Cruikshank, George 1792 - 1878:

English caricaturist.


Cullum, George Washington 1809 - 1892:

West Point Class of 1833. Brigadier General in the Civil War.


Cummins, George David 1822 - 1876:

Withdrew from the American Episcopalian Church and, in 1873, formed the Reformed Episcopal Church. Born near Smyrna, DE.


Cummins, Maria Susanna 1827 - 1866:

Wrote the hugely popular novel The Lamplighter in 1854. Born in Salem, MA.


Currier, Nathaniel 1813 - 1888:

Name (as in Currier and Ives), nearly synonymous with early American Lithography. Issued the first of what became know as the Currier and Ives prints, showing the ruins from the spectacular 1835 New York fire, in that year. Born in Roxbury MA, and conducted business in New York City from 1834.


Curry, Jabez Lamar Monroe 1825-1903:

Served in the House of Representatives from Georgia from 1857-61, and the Confederate Congress 1861-63 and part of 64. In the Confederate army from 1864-5. Philanthropist concerned with education, particularly for the freed slaves. President of Howard University 1865-8.


Curtis, Benjamin Robbins 1809 - 1874:

Associate justice of the Supreme Court from 1851-7. Represented Andrew Jackson in the latter's impeachment trial. Brother of George Ticknor Curtis. Born in Watertown, MA. Harvard class of 1829.


Curtis, George Ticknor 1812 - 1894:

Legal scholar and historian, who wrote biographies of Webster and Buchanan. Born in Watertown, MA. Harvard class of 1832.


Curtis, George William 1824 - 1894:

Wrote for Harper's Magazine and later edited Harper's Weekly (from 1863). A popular lecturer and essayist. Lived at Brook Farm 1842-3. Born in Providence, RI.


Cushing, Caleb 1800 - 1879:

In the U.S. House of Representatives from 1835-43. Special ambassador to China 1843-5, where he negotiated a treaty which opened five Chinese ports to U.S. trade. Attorney General from 1853-7. Harvard Class of 1817. Born in Salisbury MA.


Cushing, Luther Stearns 1803 - 1856:

Author of A Manual of Parliamentary Practice (1844), know as Cushing's Manual. Harvard class of 1826. Born Lunenburg, MA.


Cushman, Charlotte Saunders 1816 - 1876:

Stage actress from 1835-58. In England 1845-9. Toured U.S. 1849-52. Born in Boston.


Cutter, George Washington 1801 - 1865:

Canadian born poet, author of Buena Vista and Other Poems (1848).