books which might be of general interest to students of the "Early
Republic" period -- If you find any worth purchasing after following
one of these links, a portion will go to support of this web site:
The Greater Journey: Americans in Paris by David McCullough a "story of the adventurous American artists, writers, doctors,
politicians, architects, and others of high aspiration who set off for
Paris in the years between 1830 and 1900, ambitious to excel in their
The Price of Civilization: Reawakening American Virtue and Prosperity by Jeffrey Sachs. From book description: "For more than three decades, Jeffrey D. Sachs has been at the forefront
of international economic problem solving. But Sachs turns his
attention back home in The Price of Civilization, a book that is
essential reading for every American. In a forceful, impassioned, and
personal voice, he offers not only a searing and incisive diagnosis of
our country’s economic ills but also an urgent call for Americans to
restore the virtues of fairness, honesty, and foresight as the
foundations of national prosperity.
Brief Biographies from the Jackson/Van Buren Era (C):
Cabet, Etian 1788 - 1856:
An exile from the French revolution of 1830, he led an Owenite utopian
community in Nauvoo, IL from 1849-56 (Nauvoo was previously occupied by
Cabor, George 1752 - 1823:
One of the conservative group of federalists called the Essex Junto who
dominated Massachusetts politics for a while. From Salem MA, he was a shipping
magnate from 1768 - 1795.
Cain, Richard Harvey 1825
Negro African Methodist Episcopal minister from 1862. Freeborn in Greenbrier
County, VA. He was in the House of Representatives from 1873-75 and 1877-79.
Calhoun, John 1806 - 1859:
President of the Lecompton convention which drafted a proslavery constitution
for Kansas. The Lecompton constitution was later rejected.
Calhoun, John Caldwell (1782 - 1850):
South Carolina Senator, Two-term Vice President, Secretary of War and Secretary
of State. Best remembered for his years in the U.S. Senate from 1832-43
and from 1845-50, in which he gave perhaps the strongest voice to the South's
dissatisfaction with the Union.
Graduate of Yale (1804), and
student at Tapping Reeve's
"law school" in Litchfield, CT.
Calhoun was the only man to be Vice President under two different presidents
of violently opposing tendencies. When he was elected to serve under John
Quincy Adams, he was disgusted at the way Adams was put into the presidency
by the House of Representatives against the evident will of the electorate.
He soon joined in a coalition, involving Martin
Van Buren, and Andrew Jackson,
to replace Adams with Jackson at the next elections.
Calhoun had been, up to this time, a strong nationalist; i.e.
in the context of the time, one who favored the United States functioning
as one nation, rather than 23 states that had made a compact with
one another. In the House of Representatives, from 1811-17, he had joined
Clay as a "War Hawk", calling for America's going to war with Great
Britain, which was controlling the seas and impressing men off of American
vessels, and suppressing much of America's overseas trade. At the same
time, many hoped to use the war to expand the American borders. Others
thought going to war with Britain was foolhardy; and indeed the war did
result in some catastrophes for the U.S., like the burning of the Capitol
building and the White House. In the House, and as Secretary of War from
1817-25, Calhoun was a proponent of national projects - especially the
building of a great transportation network, which would make the country
stronger economically and militarily.
In the late 1820s and early 1830s, Calhoun's state of South Carolina
became increasingly opposed to national projects, especially the tariff
(tax on imports), and any project, such as roadbuilding, which spent federal
money, and hence could prolong the life of the tariff.
Calhoun, persuaded to this viewpoint, gave a theoretical justification
in terms of constitutional law, for South Carolina refusing to pay the
tariff. He and others hoped that if South Carolinians voted a proclamation
the tariff law, and stuck to their guns, they would establish a precedent
by which, in the future, the constitution would be interpreted, making
it always possible, if state feelings were strong enough (in terms of votes),
for a state to decline to follow a federal law (the nullifying state could
be overruled by a constitutional amendment).
The first congress held under the Jackson administration was presented
with a document from South Carolina, protesting a recently passed strongly
protectionist tariff, and threatening that the state might well take action
to nullify it, and hinting at seccession if the Federal government should
attempt to enforce the tariff.
In those days, the Vice President was actual as well as figurative head
of the Senate, and acted as chairman directing the debate there. About
a month into that session of Congress, in late January, the famous Webster-Hayne
debate took place under Calhoun's nose, with Webster sometimes directing
insinuations at Calhoun, the anonymous author of that Exposition and
It seems that Robert Y. Hayne,
a South Carolina, and one of the presenters of the protest, had
stood up to declare a common cause with discontented westerners, represented
by Thomas Hart Benton, who
were protesting the high price ($1.25 per acre) of lands which the federal
government held in all the westernmost states. Various westerners wanted
to have the price drastically lowered, or the federal lands to all be given
to the states containing the lands. Daniel
Webster heard this speech, made a reply which (seemingly gratuitously
) severely attached nullification. Hayne replied, giving for the first
time a clear outspoken defense of nullification in congress, and Webster
then made a strong patriotic anti-nullification speech that was quite famous
in the next few decades.
In late 1832, following the reelection of Andrew
Jackson, nullification was put to the test. Some strategic shufflings
of position took place among the South Carolinians; most notably Calhoun,
by now thorougly at odds with Jackson and having nothing to lose, resigned
the Vice Presidency a few months early, and was elected to the Senate (by
the SC legislature - state legislatures always elected Senators until 1913
- see 17th Amemdment). He went to Washington with
some fear of being hung as a traitor, but was not, and while the federal
forces and the South Carolina Military performed threatening maneuvers,
Clay proposed a face-saving "compromise" tariff, which was favored
by southerners mostly because it was not the compromise proposal
that Jackson was backing. South Carolina then agreed not to nullify the
new tariff, but they voted to nullify the "Force Bill", which Jackson
had gotten passed to demonstrate his mandate against South Carolina; Jackson,
of course, had no intention of using the force bill once SC agreed to live
with the tariff.
Calhoun briefly joined the Whig party, initially
a catch-all for all anti-Jacksonians, but as the Whig party became more
of a nationalist, pro-internal improvements party, and Jackson faded out
of the picture, he went back to the democrats. He became more and more
of an outspoken defender of slavery, and denounced any infringement against
slavery, or other southern concerns, as a threat to the Union. He died
just after a speech was delivered on his behalf, in the very heated 1850
debates over the slave or non-slave status of new territories, mostly acquired
in the Mexican-American war.
Calkins, Norman Allison
1822 - 1895:
Educator and promoter of the Pestalozzian method. Popularized it in a book
Cambreleng, Churchill C.
An intimate associate of Martin
Van Buren, he represented Albany Regency
interests in New York City. Arriving there in 1802 from North Carolina,
he became a successful merchant, working for a while with John Jacob Astor.
Congressman from 1821-1839. Advocate of low tariffs.
Accompanied Van Buren on his tour of the South in spring 1827;part of
Van Buren's building of the Democratic party, and strengthening of the
old North-South alliance (James Hamilton Jr and William Drayton - two South
Carolinians also accompanied them).
Connected with the sending off of Louis McLane, in summer, 1829,on the
latter's successful trip as ambassador to England. McLane's main mission
was to open up trade between the U.S. and the Brittish West Indies. One
of the possible tactics for accomplishing this would have been to unilaterally
lower tariffs, benefitting Brittish shipping and manufacturing interests.
Cambreling was lobbying to tie to West Indies trade mission to lower tariffs.
"Short, stocky, earthy, and cynical, he expected the worst of human
beings and loved to report the latest gossip to eager listeners such as
p93, 152 for Cambreling and VB's tour of South)
Cameron, Simon 1799 - 1889:
Helped forge and control the Republican party in Pennsylvania. As Secretary
of War under Lincoln, he turned out to be a disaster. One of Lincoln's
cabinet is supposed to have said he would steal anything but a red-hot
stove, and when Cameron demanded a retraction, said Cameron would, after
all, steal a red-hot stove. To keep from alienating Cameron's constituency,
Lincoln made him Minister to Russia.
Camman, George Philip
1804 - 1863:
Inventor of the modern stethoscope. Practiced medicine in New York.
Campbell, Alexander (June 1786 - March
Founder of the Disciples of Christ religious sect, also known as
Campbellites. Edited Christian
Baptist from 1823 - 1830, and Millennial
Harbinger from 1830 - 1863 (after his break with the established
Born in County Antrim Ireland, he came to the U.S. in 1809; settled
first in Washington, PA., then pastor of church
in Brush Run, PA. From 1813-27 he was an itinerant evangelist with no affiliation.
From 1827 (Harper's
Ency.)or 1830 (Feller,
Click here <== if you wish to point
me to good sources on this or related matters.
Sources:Webster's Biog., Harper's Ency., Feller, Promise.
Washington 1769 - 1848:
Brought from Scotland to the U.S. as a child, he graduated from Princeton,
became a lawyer, and served as U.S. secretary of the treasury (1814), Senator
from Tennessee from 1815-18, and minister to Russia from 1818-21.
Campbell, James 1812-1893:
Postmaster General from 1853 - 57.
Campbell, Rev. John M. ? - ?
Pastor of the Presbyterian church in Washington DC during Jackson Admin.
Did much to inflame the scandal over Peggy Eaton. (Source: Remini,
Jackson, vol 2, p207ff)
Canby, Edwin Richard
Sprigg 1817 - 1873:
West Point class of 1839 - served in the Mexican and Civil Wars. Killed
by Indians in a feigned peace conference.
Cannon, George Quale 1829
Born in England, he was converted to Mormonism in 1840, and moved to the
U.S. 2 years later, where he followed the Mormons to Nauvoo, IL, and later
to Utah. Served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1873-81. Imprisoned
for polygamy in 1888.
Cannon, Harriet Starr
1823 - 1896:
Founded and led the episcopal Sisterhood of St. Mary in 1865. Born in Charleston
Capron, Horace 1804 - 1885:
U.S. Commisioner of agriculture in 1867-71. Born in Attleboro,
Cardozo, Jacob Newton
1786 - 1873:
Editor of the (Charleston, SC)
Patriot from 1817-1845, and owner after 1823(?). He was a free
trade spokesman, and wrote Notes on Political Economy in 1826 (he
opposed Nullification, however). (Source: DAB)
When Anne Royall visited Charleston in Spring 1830, he was very helpful
and they both wrote good things about each other.
Carey, Henry Charles 1793
After helping run, and then heading, his father's (Matthew
Carey) firm of Carey and Lea, he spent from 1835 to the end of his
life writing about economic theory, and became widely recognized as the
founder of an American school of economic thought. (Source: DAB)
Carey, Mathew 1760 - 1839:
Philadelphia publisher, writer, and promoter of the "American System".
Born in Dublin, Ireland and became an anti-British newspaper editor
there. Fled to the U.S. where he settled in Philadelphia, founded the Pennsylvania
Herald in 1785, and the Columbian Magazine in 1786. He became
a very prominent publisher, and a well-known advocate of the "American
System", of federally-backed internal improvements and protective tariffs
on manufactured goods, to build up the U.S. as a manufacturing nation with
a strong internal commerce.
In late 1814, at the low point for the U.S., of the War of 1812, he
published the Olive Branch, aimed at stiffening American resolve,
and reconciling the Federalists who had mostly opposed it, and the Republicans
(Jeffersonians) who had prosecuted the war (though they obstructed earlier
defensive measures). The book was praised by Thomas Jefferson, and quoted
by Robert Y. Hayne (in an
attack on the Federalists) in his famous Senate debate with Daniel
Carlile, John Snyder 1817
Lawyer and member of the House of Representatives from 1855 - 1857 and
in 1861. He had much to do with West Virginias application for admission
to the union (and exodus from the Confederation) by achieving separate
statehood. He then served as Senator from the new state for the duration
of the Civil War.
Carlile, Richard 1790 - 1843:
An English tinsmith, and radical publisher, and keeper of the flame of
Thomas Paine's freethinking skepticism. His papers were prohibited and
he was at times in prison, as were some of his followers and family.
Carlyle, Thomas (1795 - 1881):
Scottish philosophical essayist and Historian.
He met Emerson in 1833,
before the latter was well known, and they corresponded thereafter. Emerson
helped get some of Carlyle's books published in America.
Carlyle served the American Transcendentalists as an interpretor of
Goethe, who did much to promote the basic concepts, and Kant.
His most famous works are a history of the French Revolution, and Sartor
Sartoris (The Tailor Retailored), an autobiographical writing which
discusses many creeds and systems of philosophy.
Julia (Maiden Name Fletcher) 1823 - 1908:
Author of a popular poem called Small Things, in 1845, and of other
works. Born in Boston.
Carr, Benjamin 1769 - 1831:
An english-born musician who moved to the U.S. at 24, and settled in Philadelphia,
where he made his career. Wrote an opera called The Archers in 1796,
and Masses, Vespers, and Litanies in 1805.
Carroll, Charles 1737 - 1832:
Revolutionary leader, educated in Europe. Known as "Charles Carroll of
Carrollton". Last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence,
According to Philip Hone, whose visit to Carroll, in his last year, is
among the selections from Hone's diary as edited by Allan Nevins.
Carroll, John 1735 - 1815:
A member of the Jesuit order who was born in Maryland, founded Georgetown
College, and became the first archbishop of Baltimore in 1808.
Carson, Christopher (Or "Kit") 1809
A trapper, explorer, scout, and Indian agent. He ran away from home in
1826, and was part of a very early expedition to California from 1829 to
1831. In the 1840s, he was part of John C. Fremont's thorough exploration
of that future state. Performed heroically in the Mexican-American war,
and fought against uprisings of southwestern Indians during the Civil War.
Carter, James Gordon 1795
Pioneer advocate of early education. Born in Leominster, MA. Died in Chicago,
IL. Quoted in Education
in the U.S., A Documentary History, p1286. A teacher, legislator,
and textboook writer, who did much toward the reform of New England common
Cartwright, Peter (1785 - 1872):
A methodist minister, a circuit rider and evangelist who began in the days
of Bishop Francis Asbury, preaching
in Kentucky (from 1803), and then in Illinois (from 1824).
He wrote a fascinating autobiography
about his circuit riding and tent-revival days, also detailing the conferences
which held together and drove the Methodist church as a powerful force
for building up religion on the early frontier.
He was defeated for congress by Abraham
Lincoln in 1846, the only time that the latter was sent to the capitol
before his presidency. It is hard to picture this episode from Cartwright's
point of view as he does not mention it in his Autobiography. Any
comments or pointers? <== Click here to send mail.
Cary, Alice 1820 - 1871:
Poet born near Cincinnati. Sister of Phoebe (1824-1871).
Cary, Phoebe 1824 - 1871:
Poet born near Cincinnati. Sister of Phoebe (1820-1871).
Case, Leonard 1820 - 1880:
Lawyer and philanthropist who founded and endowed the Case School of Applied
Science, in Cleveland Ohio, where he was born.
Casey, Joseph 1814 - 1879:
Published Pennsylvania State Reports on the decisions of the Pennsylvania
supreme court; also known as Casey's Reports; from 1855 - 1861.
Chief Justice (U.S. Supreme Court???) from 1863 - 1870.
Cass, Lewis 1782 - 1866:
Lawyer born in Exeter, NH. Was made governor of the Michigan Territory
during the War of 1812, when Michigan was on a hostile fronteir. Apparently
did a statesmanlike job. Served as Secretary of War in the reorganized
(Post-Peggy Eaton) cabinet of Andrew Jackson. Minister to France under
Van Buren (and for a year under Harrison/Tyler). He was a Senator from
1845-48 and 1849-57, broken by has unsuccessful run for president against
"Old Rough and Ready" Taylor. He was secretary of state for all but part
of the last year of Buchanan's term as president.
Cassin, John 1813 - 1869:
Ornithologist born in Deleware County, PA. Served as a scientist on Perry's
expedition to Japan in 1853.
Celeste, Of ("Madam Celeste") 1815 - 1882:
A french dancer and actress who spend much time in the U.S.
Chadbourne, Paul Ansel
1823 - 1883:
Educator, born in North Berwick, Maine. From 1866, he was president of
Massachusetts Agricultural College, of University of Wisconson, of Williams
College, and again of Massachusetts Agricultural College.
CHAMBERS, Ezekiel Forman,
Maryland anti-Jackson Senator from 1826-1834.
Born in Chestertown, Md.,
February 28, 1788; was graduated from Washington College at Chestertown
in 1805; studied law; was admitted to the bar in 1808 and commenced practice
in Chestertown, Md.; served in the War of 1812, attaining the rank of brigadier
general; member, State senate 1822; elected to the United States Senate
to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Edward Lloyd; reelected
in 1831 and served from January 24, 1826, until his resignation on December
20, 1834; chairman, Committee on District of Columbia (Twenty-first through
Twenty-third Congresses); presiding judge of the second judicial circuit
of Maryland and judge of the court of appeals 1834-1851; unsuccessful Democratic
candidate for Governor in 1864; died in Chestertown, Md., January 30, 1867;
interment in Chester Cemetery.
Dir of Congress, which cites DAB.
Chambers, Robert 1802 - 1871:
Scottish author and publisher of many inexpensive educational works, including
an encyclopedia of english literature, a general encyclopedia, and scientific
works including one called Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation
that, in 1843-6, partly anticipated Darwin's theory of evolution.
Chandler, Zachariah 1813-1879:
One of the founders of the Republican Party. Senator from Michigan from
1857 - 75, and Secretary of the Interior from 1875-77. Born in Bedford,
Chang And Eng 1811 - 1874:
"Siamese twins" born in Siam (hence the phrase "Siamese twins"), became
a sensation in America starting in 1829. Married two American sisters in
1843 after becoming U.S. citizens.
Channing, Walter 1786-1876:
Obstretician and medical educator. Professon of Harvard Medical School
from 1815-54, and dean from 1819-47. Introduced ether as a form of anasthesia.
Brother of William Ellery Channing Born in Newport, RI.
Channing, William Ellery
1780 - 1842:
The heart and sole of the unitarian movement from about 1819, he organized
a formal association in 1825. Wrote against slavery, and was more friendly
than many others of the Unitarian Association to the Transcendentalists,
who were largely dissenting Unitarian ministers. Born in Newport, RI.
Channing, William Ellery
1818 - 1901:
Son of Walter (1786-76) and
nephew of his namesake,
was a poet and member of the transcendentalist circle. Born in Boston.
After early education at Round
Hill School and the Boston
Latin School, he was enrolled in Harvard
in 1834, but ran away after a few months to write poetry at Curzon's Mill
(upriver from Newburyport).
Lived in Concord most of his
later life; married Ellen Fuller, the younger sister of Margaret
Fuller; wrote for a while for Horace
Greeley's Tribune; a devoted
friend of Henry David Thoreau,
and Thoreau's first biographer.
Channing, William Henry
Unitarian minister and fellow-travelor of the transcendentalists, he was
for a while resident at Brook Farm, and edited a socialist magazine called
The Present. Served in the House of Representatives during the Civil
War, from 1863 to 1863. Lived in Britain after 1866. Born in Boston.
Graduated Harvard in 1829,
and the Harvard Divinity School in 1833.
Had a Unitarian pastorate in Cincinnati
from 1838-1841 (He resigned after becoming convinced that the Gospels were
unreliable as history, and Christianity not ordained by God).
Edited the Western
Messenger from June 1839-March 1841.
Chapin, Chester William
1798 - 1883:
Railroad promoter, especially in the Connecticut River Valley. President
of the Connecticut River Railroad from 1850-54 and of the Boston and Albany
Railroad from 1854-77. Sat in the House of Representatives from 1875 to
1877. Born in Ludlow, MA.
Chapman, John ("Johnny Appleseed") 1775 -
Early settler of the Ohio River Valley. Very eccentric and religious, he
wandered up and down, boarding where he could, and planting Apple trees
wherever he went.
Chapman, John Gadsby 1808
Artist, whose _Baptism of Pocahontas is in the Capitol Rotunda. Born in
Maria Weston July 24, 1806 - July 12, 1885:
Anti-slavery activist; "principal Lieutenant" of Wm.
Born Weymouth, MA; grew up on a farm; spent
several years in England with a relative, a banker with Baring Bros. Returned
to U.S. in 1828 and from then until 10/6/30 (when she married Henry Grafton
Chapman, a successful young Boston merchant) served as principal of Ebenezer
Bailey's Young Lady's High School.
She served as secretary of Garrison's
New England Anti-slavery Society, and helped edit The
Liberator. She was tall, beautiful, and had an formidable quality.
Chapman, Nathaniel 1780 -
Physician who practiced in Philadelphia, and taught for the University
of Pennsylvania Medical School from 1810 - 1850. Edited the Journal
of Medical and Physical Science, from 1820, and was the first president
of the American Medical Association. Born in Summer Hill, VA.
Chase, Philander 1775 - 1852:
Organized Episcopal parishes in the Ohio region between 1817 and 1819,
and was made bishop of the diocese of Ohio, serving from 1819 - 1831. Founded
Kenyon College in 1824. He became Bishop of Illinois in 1835, and bishop
of the Episcopal church in America from 1843. Uncle of Salmon
P. Chase (1808 - 1873). Born in Cornish,
Some notes on his life are in Jacksonian Miscellanies,
#49. See also references for Salmon
Chase, Salmon Portland
1808 - 1873:
In his early years, a lawyer and activist against slavery, who defended
runaway slaves in Cincinnati, a city much concerned with slavery, being
a major port on the Ohio River, which formed the northern border of Kentucky.
He was active in the Free Soil, and later Republican parties. Served in
the Senate from 1849-55, and was governor of Ohio from 1855-59. He returned
to the Senate in 1860, and then was brought into Lincoln's cabinet as secretary
of the treasury from 1861 - 64. Chief justice of the Supreme Court from
1864 - 73.
His father died when he was 9, and he shortly afterwards went to live
for three years with his uncle, Philander
Chauncey, Isaac 1772 - 1840:
Commanded U.S. naval forces on Lakes Erie and Ontario during the war of
1812. Served as navy commissioner from 1821-4 and 1832 until his death.
Born in Black Rock, CT.
Chauvenet, William 1820 -
Taught mathematics, astronomy, and navagation, and successfully promoted
the idea of a U.S. Naval Academy between 1842 and 1842. Quite a young achiever.
Born in Milford, PA; Yale class of 1840.
Cheney, Edna Dow
Littlehale 1824 - 1904:
Abolitionist, feminist, and writer. Married to Seth Wells Cheney (1810-56).
Cheney, Oren Burbank 1816
Baptist minister, and founder of the Maine State Seminary in Lewiston,
soon afterwards renamed Bates College. He presided over the institution
from 1857- 1894. Born in NH.
Cheney, Seth Wells 1810 -
Engraver and artist. Married Edna Dow Littlehale (1824 - 1904) Born in
South Manchester, CT.
Cheney, Ward 1813 - 1876:
Early silk manufacturer, beginning in 1838 with his brothers Seth and John.
Born in South Manchester, CT.
Chester, Joseph Lemuel
1821 - 1882:
Began his career as a journalist in Philadelphia. Lived in London after
1865, where set up an organization to help Americans, particularly New
Englanders, trace their English ancestry. Born in Norwich, CT.
Cheves, Langdon 1776 - 1857:
A South Carolinian from the Abbeville District (in the western uplands),
best known as president of the Bank of the United States (BUS), from 1819-22.
He severely reined in the irresponsible lending policies of his predecessor,
and began the policy of using the BUS to force the many smaller banks in
the country, who printed most of what passed for money in the U.S. in those
days. Cheves tight money policies, following on the heels of his predecessor's
failure to rein in the printing of "money" contributed to the depression
of 1821, but did stabilize the bank.
He also served in the House of Representatives from 1810-15, during
the last two years of which he replaced Henry Clay as Speaker of the House
when the latter departed for Europe. He was also a moderating voice in
South Carolina politics during the years of the Nullification Crisis.
Child, Francis James 1825
Philologist, and Harvard professor from 1851-96. Studied and wrote on English
and Scottish ballads. Born in Boston.
Child, Lydia Marie
Francis 1802 - 1880:
Abolitionist and editor of the important Anti-Slavery Standard from
1841-49. Author, in 1833, of _An Appeal in Favor of That Class of Americans
Called Africans. She initially became known as an author through the publication
of The American Frugal Housewife, which was full of home remedies
and other advice for women running a household. Born in Medford MA, and
married in 1828 to David Lee Child.
CHILTON, Thomas, 1798-1854
Representative from Kentucky; born near Lancaster, Garrard County, Ky.,
July 30, 1798; attended the common schools in Paris, Ky.; studied law;
was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Owingsville, Bath County,
Ky.; member of the State house of representatives in 1819; moved to Elizabethtown,
Ky.; was a candidate for election to the Twentieth Congress to fill the
vacancy caused by the death of William S. Young, but owing to an irregularity
the votes of one county were eliminated and the credentials were issued
to his opponent, John Calhoon; subsequently both candidates renounced all
claim to the seat and petitioned the Governor for a new election; was duly
elected to fill the resulting vacancy; reelected to the Twenty-first Congress
and served from December 22, 1827, to March 3, 1831; unsuccessful candidate
for reelection in 1830 to the Twenty-second Congress; resumed the practice
of law in Elizabethtown; presidential elector for Clay and Sergeant in
1832; elected as an Anti-Jacksonian to the Twenty-third Congress (March
4, 1833-March 3, 1835); declined to be a candidate for renomination in
1834; moved to Talladega, Ala., and resumed the practice of law; was pastor
of a church in Hopkinsville, Ky.; president of the Alabama Baptist State
Convention in 1841; abandoned the practice of law and became general agent
of the Alabama convention; continued his ministerial duties in Montgomery,
Greensboro, and Newbern, Ala.; moved to Houston, Tex., in 1851 and served
as pastor of a Baptist church; died in Montgomery, Montgomery County, Tex.,
August 15, 1854; interment in the Old Cemetery.
Hannum, Sharon Elaine. ?Thomas Chilton-Lawyer, Politician, Preacher.?
Filson Club Historical Quarterly 38 (April 1964): 97-114.
Source of above: Biog.
Dir. of Am. Congress.
According to David Crockett's biography
Frontiersman by Mark Derr (p147-8), Chilton also "wrote many of
Crockett's speeches and formal, circular letters back to his constituents
[and] was also the ghostwriter for his autobiography", and there were those
back home who thought Crockett was being manipulated. They roomed together
at Mrs Ball's, and followed "exactly the same electoral path", serving
from 1827-31 as Jacksonians, suffering defeat, and returning as anti-Jacksonians
in 1833. He was supposed to have been a "physical giant", morally rigid,
and constantly orating on the need for "reform and retrenchment".
Chitty, Joseph 1776 - 1841:
English jurist and writer of books on the practice of law which were widely
read in America.
Chivers, Thomas Holley
1809 - 1858:
Poet involved in mutual recrimations with Edgar Allen Poe around 1850.
Each accused the other of plagiarization. They had been associated from
1845-49. Born near Washington, GA.
Choate, Rufus 1799 - 1859:
Member of the House of representatives for Massachusetts from 1831-4; later
in the Senate from 1841-5. He was widely known as an orator and statesman.
Born in Essex, MA; Dartmouth class of 1819.
Choteau, Jean Pierre 1758
In 1796, established the first white settlement in the future state of
Chouteau, Rene August
1749 - 1829:
Fur trader and pioneer who helped found St. Louis, MO.
Christophe, Henri 1767 - 1820:
King of Haiti from 1811-20. In the midst of a rebellion, committed suicide.
Church, Frederick Edwin
1826 - 1900:
Landscape painter. Did a famous painting of Niagra Falls which is in the
Corcoran Gallery in Washington. Born in Hartford, CT.
Church, William, (?):
Invented an typesetting machine, patented in England in 1822.
Francis Hamtramck 1809-1884
Nephew of William Charles Cole Claiborne and Nathaniel Herbert Claiborne,
grandnephew of Thomas Claiborne [1749-1812], great-grandfather of Herbert
Claiborne Pell, Jr., great-great-grandfather of Claiborne de Borda Pell,
and great-great granduncle of Corinne Claiborne Boggs), a Representative
from Mississippi; born in Natchez, Adams County, Miss., April 24, 1809;
attended school in Virginia; studied law; was admitted to the bar in 1825
(at age 16?) and commenced practice at Natchez, Miss.; member of the
State house of representatives 1830-1834; moved to Madison County, Miss.;
elected as a Jacksonian to the Twenty-fourth Congress (March 4, 1835-March
3, 1837); presented credentials as a Member-elect to the Twenty-fifth Congress
and served from July 18, 1837, until February 5, 1838, when the seat was
declared vacant; engaged in newspaper work in Natchez, Miss.; moved to
New Orleans, La., in 1844 and resumed newspaper interests; appointed United
States timber agent for Louisiana and Mississippi in 1853; author of several
historical works; returned to his estate, ?Dumbarton,? near Natchez, Miss.,
and died there on May 17, 1884; interment in Trinity Churchyard, Natchez,
DAB; Williams, Frederich D. ?The Career of J.F.H. Claiborne, States?
Rights Unionist.? Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1953.
Dir. of Am. Congress.
CLAIBORNE, Nathaniel Herbert 1777-1859
Brother of William
Charles Cole Claiborne, nephew of Thomas Claiborne [1749-1812], uncle
of John Francis Hamtramck Claiborne, and great-great-great granduncle of
Corinne Claiborne Boggs), a Representative from Virginia; born in Chesterfield,
Sussex County, Va., November 14, 1777; attended a local academy; engaged
in agricultural pursuits; member of the State house of delegates 1810-1812;
served in the State senate 1821-1825; an executive councilor; elected to
the Nineteenth and Twentieth Congresses, elected as a Jacksonian to the
Twenty-first through Twenty-third Congresses, and elected as an Anti-Jacksonian
to the Twenty-fourth Congress (March 4, 1825-March 3, 1837); chairman,
Committee on Elections (Twenty-second through Twenty-fourth Congresses);
unsuccessful candidate in 1836 for reelection to the Twenty-fifth Congress;
resumed agricultural pursuits; died near Rocky Mount, Franklin County,
Va., August 15, 1859; interment in the family cemetery of his Claibrook
estate near Rocky Mount, Va.
Dir. of Am. Congress.
William Charles Coles 1775 - 1817:
Brother of Nathaniel Herbert Claiborne, nephew of Thomas Claiborne [1749-1812],
uncle of John Francis Hamtramck Claiborne. Representative from Tennessee
and a Senator from Louisiana; born in Sussex County, Va., in 1775; moved
in early youth to New York City; studied law in Richmond, Va.; was admitted
to the bar and commenced practice in Sullivan County, Tenn.; delegate to
the State constitutional convention from Sullivan County in 1796; appointed
judge of the superior court in 1796; elected as a Republican from Tennessee
to the Fifth and Sixth Congresses, and served from November 23, 1797, to
March 3, 1801, in spite of the fact that he was still initially under the
constitutional age requirement of twenty-five years; appointed Governor
of the Territory of Mississippi in 1801; appointed in October 1803 one
of the commissioners to take possession of Louisiana when purchased from
France and served as Governor of the Territory of Orleans 1804-1812; Governor
of Louisiana 1812-1816; elected as a Democrat from Louisiana to the United
States Senate and served from March 4, 1817, until his death, before the
assembling of Congress, in New Orleans, La., November 23, 1817; interment
in Basin St. Louis Cemetery; reinterment in Metairie Cemetery.
DAB; Hatfield, Joseph T. William Claiborne: Jeffersonian Centurion in
the American Southwest. Lafayette: University of Southwest Louisiana Press,
1976; Winters, John D. ?William C.C. Claiborne: Profile of a Democrat.?
Louisiana History 10 (Summer 1969): 189-210.
Dir. of Am. Congress:
I believe current work on WCCC is being done by Marion Winship.
Mary Jane 1798 - 1879:
Mother of Byron's daughter Allegra. English.
Clark, Alvan 1804 - 1887:
His lens making firm made huge (for the time) telescope lenses, including
a 26 inch one for the U.S. Naval Observatory and also for the University
of Virginia. His first 20 adult years (1824-44) were spent as an Engraver
and painter. He was also an astronomer himself. Born in Ashfield, MA.
Clark, Lewis Gaylord 1808
Editor of Knickerbocker
Magazine in New York from 1833-61. Phillip Hone (p 82) compares
it unfavorably to the Mirror. Twin brother of Willis
One of the founders of the Century Club, and a very popular character
in New York society.
Clark, Willis Gaylord
1808 - 1841:
"Foremost Philadelphia poet of his day" called by Poe "almost the first
poet to render the poetry of religion attractive"; editor of Relf's
Philadelphia Gazette, which he changed from Jacksonian to Whig.
Twin brother of Lewis Gaylord
Clark, who for decades edited the Knickerbocker.
Contributed a witty column called "Ollapodianna" to the
Both he and his wife died at an early age of consumption.
Clark, William 1770 - 1838:
One of the leaders of the famous Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1804-6,
which Thomas Jefferson commissioned to explore from the Missisippi to the
Pacific Ocean. Born in Caroline County, VA.
Clarke, James Freeman
1810 - 1888:
A Unitarian minister and one of the transcendentalist circle who, in the
1830s lived in Ohio and published the Western Messenger, from which
Perry Miller takes some extracts in his anthology of the Transcendentalists.
Born in Hanover, NH, he graduated Harvard in 1829, and returned to preach
from 1841 until his death, with a lapse between 1850 and 1854.
Clarke, McDonald 1798 - 1842:
Called the "Mad Poet". Born in Bath, ME.
Francios Jean 1797 - 1867:
A French-born pioneer of photography in England.
Clay, Cassius Marcellus
1810 - 1903:
A vocal and well known abolitionist in Kentucky. Minister to Russia from
1861-2 and 1863-9.
Clay, Henry (April 12, 1777 - June 29, 1852):
Born in Virginia in modest circumstances, he studied law in Richmond, under
the famous George W__?__. He went to Lexington Kentucky to seek his fortune,
and was elected to the state House of Representatives in 1803. He was elected
to fill a vacancy caused by a resignation in the U.S. Senate, and served
from Nov. 19, 1806 to March 3, 1807, despite being underaged according
to the constitution. A second resignation in the Senate led to another
short term there from Jan. 4, 1810 to March 3, 1811.
His real prominence began in the U.S. House of Representatives, where
he was almost immediately made Speaker of the House. This strange occurrence
had something to do with his outspokenness and leadership in promoting
war with Great Britain on the eve of the War of 1812, and the reluctance
of representatives with more seniority to pit themselves against the brilliant,
domineering, and half mad John Randolph,
an Anglophile and strong opponent of the movement to declare war. The majority
faction wanted war, put Clay in the speakership, and were not disappointed
with the results.
Clay resigned the Senate in January 1814, and was appointed to help
negotiate peace with Britain, along with John
Quincy Adams and Abert Gallatin. He played for high stakes in the negotiations,
holding out for more than some of his partners thought feasible, successfully.
He served in the House of Representatives again from March 5, 1815 to
March 3, 1821, and again from March 3, 1823 to March 6, 1825, being elected
to the speakership again during most of both of these intervals. In 1820
Clay, with some dazzling political footwork, forced got the congress to
ratify the "Missouri Compromise", allowing Missouri into the Union as a
slave state, which many of the north were dead-set against, while also
adding one northern state (Maine, by splitting off, from Massachusetts)
which preserved the ballance in the Senate. The package also included the
agreement not to admit any more slave states west of Missouri above an
extension of the Mason-Dixon line.
He campaigned for the presidency in 1824 in a four way race with John
Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson,
and William H. Crawford. Receiving the
smallest number of electoral votes, he did much to strong-arm the House
of Representatives into voting for Adams. Adams then selected Clay as his
Secretary of State. In the barely established political traditions of the
United States, this office was then viewed as a stepping stone to the presidency.
This was, in terms of hopes for the presidency, Clay's undoing. Though
he probably did what his judgement said was right for the country, he was
very high handed about it. It seems certain that Jackson would have won
in any two man election among the candidates of that year, and Clay's state
of Kentucky certainly wouldn't have made Adams their second choice, though
Clay delivered their vote to Adams anyway. Many saw it as an act of corruption,
for which "bargain" and "coalition" became code words. He had, for one
thing, run quite a slashing anti-Adams campaign himself. At any rate, Jackson
labeled him the "Judas of the West", and reiterated that charge through
the 1828 election against Adams, and the 1832 election against Clay himself,
both of which Jackson won.
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
MUCH MORE TO BE ADDED LATER.
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
Clayton, John Middleton
1796 - 1856:
Senator from Delaware from 1829-36. Fought against Jackson's dismantling
of the bank, but supported Jackson in the Nullification crisis. Again a
senator from 1845-49, and secretary of state from 1849-50. Negotiaated
Clayton-Bulwer treaty with Britain which laid the diplomatic groundwork
for the Panama Canal. In the senate again from 1853 to 1856. Born in Dagsborough,
DE. Yale class of 1815.
Cleaveland, Parker 1780 -
Wrote the first American book on mineralogy, Elementary Treatise on
Mineralogy and Geology, an 1816. Born in Byfield, MA.
Clemens, Samuel Langhorne
1835 - 1910:
Known as Mark Twain. Started to become famous shortly after the Civil War.
He was a journeyman printer from 1847-55, and a steamboat pilot on the
Mississippi from 1857-61. Born in Florida, MO, and mostly grew up in Hannibal
Clemson, Thomas Green
1807 - 1888:
Mining engineer. His will endowed Clemson College in South Carolina. Born
Clerc, Laurent 1785 - 1869:
Born deaf in France, he became an educator of the deaf. Came to America
in 1817 with Thomas Gallaudet, and founded conducted (1817 - 58) what is
now called the American School for th Deaf, in Hartford, CT.
Clevinger, Shobal Vail
1812 - 1843:
A sculptor know for his busts of great American figures such as Daniel
Webster and Henry Clay. Born near Middletown, OH.
Clifford, Nathan 1803 - 1881:
Member of the House of Representatives from 1839-43, U.S. Attorney General
from 1846-8. Served on the Supreme Court from 1858 until the year of his
death, 1881. Born in Rumney, NH.
Clinton, De Witt (Mar. 2, 1769 - Feb. 11,
Best known for his vision and energy in promoting the Erie
Canal, a project of enormous benefit to New York State.
Also governor of New York State 1817-1822 and 1824-27.
mayor of New York City 1803-7, 1809-10 and 1811-14, candidate for president
in 1812, founder and one of the first presidents of the Literary and Philosophical
Society in New York.
Though allied for a very short period, he and Martin
Van Buren became bitter rivals; yet they often agreed in principal.
Van Buren, unlike some of his colleagues, eventually threw his support
strongly in favor of the canal. Probably Van Buren saw him as some kind
of aristocrat, and symbol of the old personality politics; and as a man
who ill-served his friends.
Van Buren and Clinton both supported Andrew
Jackson, which Van Buren saw as a problem; i.e. who was going to be
seen as senior statesman of New York, and as deliverer of the votes to
Jackson (and receiver of the rewards of doing so). His death, early in
the election year of 1828 left Van Buren free to redouble his efforts for
Jackson, with the full expectation of being handsomely rewarded.
Born in Little Britain, Orange County NY.
Clymer, George E. 1754 - 1834:
Invented the "Columbian" printing press.
Cobb, Howell 1815 - 1868:
A Georgian and strong advocate of sucession, who became a major general
in the Confederate army.Served in the House of Representatives from 1843-51,
was Speaker of the House the last two of those years. He was governor of
his state from 1851-53, and returned to the House from 1855-7. Served as
U.S. Secretary of the Treasury under Buchanan from 1857-60.
Cobden, Richard 1804 - 1865:
English "Apostle of Free Trade".
Coffee, John ? - 1833:
Andrew Jackson's close friend,
one time business partner, and, in the War of 1812, cavalry officer.
Coffin, Capt. Abel 1790 - 1837
Ship captain who lived in Newburyport,
and who became for a while the guardian (and taskmaster) for the "Siamese
Twins" Chang and Eng. (The
Co-owner, with Reuben Coffin, of the "Big Shop", which was used for the
large anti-slavery meeting at which Frederick
Douglass came to the attention of William Lloyd Garrison.
Member of a large and prominent Quaker family of Nantucket.
Co-owner, with George Coffin, of the "Big Shop", which was used for the
large anti-slavery meeting at which Frederick
Douglass came to the attention of William Lloyd Garrison.
Member of a large and prominent Quaker family of Nantucket.
Coffin, William C.:
A bookkeeper and resident of Nantucket,
MA, and anti-slavery activist who had a hand, in 1841, in introducing
Douglass to a wide audience.
Member of a large and prominent Quaker family of Nantucket.
Cogswell, Joseph Green
1786 - 1871:
Born in Ipswitch, MA. Educator,
bibliographer and librarian. After studying law with Fisher Ames, and wandering
about Europe for a few years, he tried the practice of law, then tutoring
at Harvard. In 1815-20, he again went to Europe, this time with Edward
Everett and George
Ticknor, to study, and observe European education, especially at Gottingen;
afterwards, he carried on a long correspondence with Goethe. Librarian
and professor of Mineralogy at Harvard from 1820-23, he next joined with
Bancroft to establish and run the Round
Hill School, until 1834. From 1836-38, he lived with Samuel
Ward, and tutored his children. Having met with John
Jacob Astor in this period, he helped Astor realize his plan to establish
a great public library, and for several years served as librarian of the
Library. Born in Ipswich, MA.
Coke, Sir Edward 1552 - 1634:
Nearly as much read by American lawyers as Blackstone.
Colburn, Warren 1793 - 1833:
Wrote First Lessons in Arithmetic, on the Plan of Pestalozzi, which
remained a standard textbook for a long time after. Born in Dedham, MA.
Colby, Gardner 1810 - 1879:
Manufacturer of woolen goods, and later a railroad magnate. His endowment
to Waterville Literary College lead to its being renamed Colby College.
Born in Bowdoinham, Maine
Cole, Thomas 1801 - 1848:
English born landscape painter, and founder of the 'Hudson River School'
not a literal school, but a style of landscape painting. Given restrained
praise by Phillip Hone (p 93).
Coleman, William Tell
1824 - 1893:
Pioneer in California, and manufacturer of (twenty mule team?) borax.
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor
1772 - 1834:
English poet, philosopher, and critic. Wrote Aids to Reflection,
a work which helped stimulate the transcendentalist movement in America.
Coles, Abraham 1813 - 1891:
Poet. Author of My Navive Land.
Colfax, Schuyler 1823 - 1885:
Member of House of Representatives for Indiana from 1855-69. Speaker in
the last 6 years of his service there. Vice President from 1969-73 under
Grant, but was involved in a financial scandal which ended his political
career. Born in New York City, but moved to Indiana at age 13.
Colgate, William 1783 - 1857:
Brought to the U.S. from England as a child. Became a hugely successful
manufacturer, starting as a candle and soap maker. Colgate University (previously
called Madison U.) in Hamilton, NY, was renamed for him.
Collamer, Jacob 1791 - 1865:
Served in the House of Representatives from 1843-9. Postmaster general
in 1849. Senator from 1855-65. Born in Troy, NY.
Collins, John A. ? - ?:
Was with Charles Lenox
Remond on an anti-slavery tour of Ireland, and also with him when the
Irish anti-slavery petition with 60,000 names was presented at Faneuil
Hall, Boston. (Source: p9-10,
the Irish Became White). Collins also accompanied Remond
and Frederick Douglass on western
anti-slavery speaking tours, where Remond and Douglass demanded that he
stop mixing up the Fourierist socialist cause with anti-slavery. This got
Collins dismissed as general agent of the Anti-slavery society by Maria
Weston Chapman, the secretary of the society. Abby
Kelley had also joined the fray, siding with Douglass and Remond.
Collyer, Robert 1823 - 1912:
Born in England, he was a Methodist lay minister and professional blacksmith
in Shoemakertown. Became a Unitarian minister in 1859, and served for twenty
years in Chicago after that, then from 1879-1903, served the Church of
the Messiah in New York City.
Colt, Samuel 1814 - 1862:
Invented the first "revolver", or pistol with a revolving barrell holding
several bullets. Born in Hartford CT.
Colton, Gardner Quincy
1814 - 1898:
Demonstrated the use of laughing gas as an anaesthetic, which was soon
taken up by the dentist Horace Wells. Brother of Walter (1797-1851).
Colton, Walter 1797 - 1851:
Congregational minister and chaplain of the navy from 1831-51; also wrote
books and published a newspaper in California. Born in Rutland County,
VT. Brother of Garner Quincy (1814-98).
Combe, George 1788 - 1858:
Founded the Prenological Society in 1820, and Phrenological Journal in
1823. Resident of Scotland, but toured and lectured in the U.S., helping
to make phrenology (a pseudo-science of determining character by the shape
of the skull) immensely popular in the U.S. Ronald G. Walters in American
Reformers 1815-1860, discusses who so many Americans, caught up in
the widespread optimism and reformism of the period were also taken with
Tompkins Paige 1820 - 1870:
Prospector born in Canada. Famous for discovering the "Comstock lode" in
Nevada around 1859. He did not profit much from it.
Conant, Hannah O'Brien
1809 - 1865:
Wrote The English Bible in 1856, a popular book tracing the history
of English Biblical translations. Wife of Thomas Jefferson Conant.
Conant, Thomas Jefferson
1802 - 1891:
Biblical scholar. Middlebury College class of 1823. Married to Hannah O'Brien
Conant, who became a popular writer, also on the bible.
Cone, Spencer Houghton
1785 - 1855:
A founder of the American and Foreign Bible Society, and its president
from 1837 - 50. President of the American Bible Union from 1850 until his
death. A Baptist minister, born in Princeton, NJ.
Prosper 1809 - 1893:
Leading desciple of Fourier. Tried to set up a Phalanx near Dallas TX between
1855 and 57.
Conway, Moncure Daniel
1832 - 1907:
Graduate of Dickinson College in 1849, and the Harvard Divinity School
in 1854. He became a very active abolitionist, edited The Dial from
1860-61, and Commonwealth in 1862. Near the end of the Civil War
he moved to England to preach.
Cooke, John Easton 1830 -
Wrote novels, Leather Stocking and Silk, and The Virginia Comedians,
both in 1854, and The Wearing of the Gray in 1867. Born in Winchester,
Cooke, Josiah Parsons
1827 - 1848:
Prominent chemist (Harvard '48) who investigated the atomic weights of
the elements. Born in Boston.
Cooper, James Fenimore 1789 - 1851: A novelist, extremely popular in
his day, and still popular today. After an education at Yale from 1803-5,
and spending several of his youthful years in the U.S. navy (until 1811).
Though indendently wealthy, he started to write in 1820, achieved success
with The Spy in 1821, The Pioneers in 1823, and many more
of the Leatherstocking series, of which the most famous was The Last
of the Mohicans. Born in Burlington, NJ. His father was a pioneer entrepreneur
in western NY state, for whom Cooperstown is named.
Cooke, Philip Pendleton
1816 - 1850:
Writer of romantic verse. Brother of John Easton Cooke.
Cooper, James Fenimore
1789 - 1851:
Immensely popular novelist and travel writer.
Cooper, Peter 1791 - 1883
Manufacturer and inventor, philanthropist, born in New York.
After success as a glue manufacturer, he and partners, in 1828 started
the Canton Iron Works in Baltimore,
MD, where the first American-built locomotive was built. He made numerous
inventions, flourished as a manufacturer.
He founded or endowed the Cooper
Union (or Institute) in New York City, which provided free adult education
courses in science, technology and art, where Lincoln gave a speech in
1860 that did much to enhance his chances of being nominated for president.
Promoted and backed the laying of the transatlantic cable.
In 1876 was a third party (Greenback ticket) candidate for President.
Cooper, Thomas 1759 - 1839:
An English radical and physician who migrated to America in 1794 with
his friend Joseph Priestley.
He became associated with the Jeffersonians and was sentenced under the
Sedition Law to 6 months and a $400 fine (refunded, with interest, to his
heirs after his death). In the early 1800s, finding his views did not agree
with any of the political factions of the time where he was (Pennsylvania),
he got out of politics. His friendship with Priestley had allowed him to
learn a great deal about chemistry, which he now took up. He soon distinguished
himself, and after teaching in PA, was hired by South
Carolina College in Columbia,
SC, where, from 1820 - 34, he taught chemistry, mineralogy, and political
economy there, and served as president of the college for most of that
period. His religious views were outspokenly liberal.
Though in England, he had fought against the slave trade, he became,
in South Carolina, a famous advocate of states rights and defender of slavery,
forever identified with the phrase "calculate the value of the union".
Cooper, William 1754 - 1809:
Born poor, he was a wheelwright in his early years, but after an advantageous
marriage, he tried various business ventures, as well as joining the Library
Society of Burlington, which enabled him to educate himself by reading
voraciously for several years.
In the late 1780s, he tried his wings as a land entrepreneur, which
resulted in the founding of Cooperstown,
NY. He tried other land promotions, and unsuccessfully tried to foster
a sugar-maple industry. He became a judge, and a mostly behind the scenes
-- though a congressman from 1795-7 and 1799-1801.
He became very committed to being part of gentile society and the Federalist
party, though he often contradicted this with his rough and boisterous
ways. He tried, sometimes very effectively, to look after "his people",
but also very determinedly tried to tell them how to vote. His business
dealings were impulsive and sloppy, resulting in much grief for his partners,
family, and the settlers who bought from him.
Short but burly, and impressive looking, with a large head.
He was the model for judge Marmaduke Temple in J.F. Cooper's The
William Cooper's Town (which includes pictures of him) and DAB.
John Singleton (Baron Lyndhurst) 1772 - 1830:
Son of the famous painter (who spent 40 years in England), he was lord
chancellor of England from 1827-30, 1834-5, and 1841-6. Born in Boston.
Copley, John Singleton
1738 - 1815:
An immensely popular and skillful portrait painter. Born and worked in
Boston until 1775, when he moved to London.
Corcoran, William Wilson
1798 - 1888:
Founded the Corcoran Art Gallery in Washington, DC after a successful business
career. Born nearby in Georgetown, DC.
Corliss. George Henry
1817 - 1888:
Invented and manufactured the Corliss engine. Born in Easton, NY.
Cornell, Ezra 1807 - 1874:
Helped Samuel Morse develop a way of getting electrical signals to travel
for miles on telephone poles without excessive loss of current. Organized
Western Union Telegraph. Benefactor and founder of Cornell University (opened
in 1868). Born in Westchester Landing, NY.
Corwin, Thomas 1794 - 1865:
Served in U.S. House of Representatives from Ohio from 1831-40 and 1859-61.
Governor from 1840-2. Secretary of the treasury 1850-3. Ambassador to Mexico
Augustin De 1736 - 1806:
Performed much early research on electricity and magnetism.
Cox, Samuel Sullivan 1824
Member House of Representatives from Ohio from 1857-65. Represented New
York State from 1869-89 with brief intervals out of office. Advocate of
reforms in the tariff and civil service.
Coxe, Arthur Cleveland
1818 - 1896:
Episcopal minister elevated to bishop of Western New York in 1865. Born
in Mendham, NJ.
CRAIG, Robert, 1792-1852
Representative from Virginia 1829-33 and 1835-41; born near Christiansburg,
Montgomery County, Va., in 1792; attended the rural schools, Washington
College (now Washington and Lee University), Lexington, Va., and was graduated
from Lewisburg Academy in Greenbrier County; engaged in planting; served
in the State house of delegates in 1817, 1818, and again in 1825-1829;
member of the Virginia Board of Public Works 1820-1823; elected as a Jacksonian
to the Twenty-first and Twenty-second Congresses (March 4, 1829-March 3,
1833); unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1832 to the Twenty-third
Congress; resumed agricultural pursuits; elected as a Jacksonian to the
Twenty-fourth Congress and reelected as a Democrat to the Twenty-fifth
and Twenty-sixth Congresses (March 4, 1835-March 3, 1841); chairman, Committee
on Revolutionary Claims (Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth Congresses); was
not a candidate for renomination in 1840; moved to Roanoke County, Va.,
in 1842 and engaged in agricultural pursuits; again a member of the State
house of delegates 1850-1852; died on his estate, ?Green Hill,? near Salem,
Roanoke County, Va., November 25, 1852; interment in the family burying
ground at ?Green Hill.?
Dir. of Am. Congress.
Cramp, William 1807 - 1879:
Est. William Cramp Shipbuilding Co. in 1830; was president until 1879.
Born in Philadelphia.
Pearse 1813 - 1892:
Unitarian minister from 1832-42. Made living as artist and poet after 1843.
He was one of the Transcendentalist circle. Born in Alexandria VA. Son
of William (1769-1855)
Cranch, William 1769 - 1855:
Distinguished legal scholar, and chief justice of the circuit court of
DC from 1805-55. Father of Christopher Pearse (1813 - 1892).
Crandall, Prudence 1803 -
Crawford, Thomas 1813 - 1857:
A great American-born sculptor though he remained in Rome for most of his
life, after studying with Thorvaldsen in 1835. Born in New York City.
Crawford, William Harris (Feb 24, 1772
- Sep 15, 1834):
Candidate for President in 1824. His candidacy, under the rubric of "Old
Republicanism" or "Radicalism" (states rightist and anti-tariff) was managed
by Martin Van Buren.
In 1830-31, he helped bring about the alienation between Andrew
Jackson, and his first Vice President, John C. Calhoun, by furnishing
documentation of (then Secretary of War) Calhoun's call for disciplining
of (the then general) Andrew Jackson.
He evidently had great personal charm, and was praised by some as a
most generous generous statesman, and called a complete political hack
U.S. Senator 11/7/07 - 3/23/13.
Minister to France 4/3/13 - 4/22/15.
Secretary of War 8/1/15 - ?.
Secretary of the Treasury 10/22/16 - 3/7/25.
Creighton, Edward 1802 - 1874:
Businessman and, together with John Andrew Creighton (1831 - 1907), benefactor
of Creighton University.
Crerar, John 1827 - 1889:
Businessman who provided endowment for a library in Chicago named after
him. Born in New York City.
Crittenden, George Bibb
1812 - 1880:
Confederate officer in the Civil war. Defeated at Mill Springs, KY in 1862.
Son of John J. Crittenden, and brother of Thomas Leonidas, a union
Crittenden, John Jordan
1787 - 1863:
Senator from Kentucky 1817-19, and for nearly all the years from 1835-61,
excepting 1841 and 1850-53 when he was Attorney General, and 1848-50 when
he was governor of Kentucky. Crittenden, who was to have two sons on opposing
sides in the Civil War, introduced the "Crittenden Compromise" to try to
stave off the war.
Leonidas 1819 - 1893:
Major general on the union side of the Civil war - his brother George Bibb
Crittenden being on the Confederate side. Son of John J. Crittenden.
Crocker, Charles 1822 - 1888:
Headed up the construction of the Central Pacific Railroad; president of
the Southern Pacific RR. Born in Troy NY, he settled in California in the
Crockett, David (1786-1836):
Folk hero, in his own and later times, congressman from Western Tennessee
from 1827-31 and 1833-35, and the most famous "martyr" of the Alamo.
He was a colorful self-promoter, who spoke entertainingly with a kind
of rough homespun eloquence. He came to congress representing the squatters
and other settlers at the edge of the frontier. He loved hunting, especially
bear hunts (bears were hunted for food and fur, and because they preyed
on pigs and other farmers' stock). Crocket made bear hunting a part of
his public image.
He was a maverick in politics, supporting Andrew
Jackson on some issues, but opposing him, sometimes very vocally, on
other issues, such as Jackson's massive Indian removals, and the dismantling
of the national bank.
In 1831, the Jackson political machine in Tennessee got the "disloyal"
Crockett defeated. He came back to Congress in 1833. He was adopted and
promoted by the Whig (or anti-Jackson) party, who were glad to have a folksy
Tennessean who would sharply criticize Jackson, and who had beaten Jackson's
machine in Tennessee with their help.
Some people were even promoting him for the presidency. If Jackson could
win the presidency as a rough, plain-spoken "man of the people", despite
his large plantation and dozens of slaves, why not a real frontier farmer
and bear hunter who only owned a couple of slaves (slaves were not
a part of Crocket's public image)? One answer could be that Jackson had
led armies, served as state prosecuter and state Supreme Court Judge, and
he had a profound natural dignity, whereas Crockett had no executive experience,
and could never resist being a clown.
At any rate, Crockett went so far as to write (or take credit for writing)
a scurrilous biography of the Democratic contender (and next president)
Van Buren. Following his last session in congress, Crockett toured
the Northeast, and was greeted by huge (no doubt orchestrated) crowds,
and continued to turn out autobiographical writing, with the help of ghost
Shortly thereafter, the Jackson forces managed to defeat his run for
reelection to congress, which wiped out any chance of a run for the presidency.
His folk hero status was bolstered by a comic play, in which "Colonel
Nimrod Wildfire" was a surrogate for Crockett, "autobiographical" writings,
some written with his help and some not, by the "Davy Crockett Almanacs"
which were popular for years. Finally, there was his dramatic death trying
to defend the indefensible Alamo against Mexican forces in the revolution
which the former province of Mexico, Texas, an independent nation (10 years
later it became a state).
One of several children of a poor Tennessee tavern owner, Crockett left
home as a young teenager and spent a few years working with wagoneers and
He served, most notably as a scout, under Andrew Jackson in the war
with the Creek Indians, who were loosely allied with the British in the
War of 1812.
He became a farmer and community leader in the pioneer settlements of
Western Tennessee. He also had various commercial projects such as grain
and lumber mills. Once, in true fronteir entrepreneurial style, he collected
a gang of laborers to manufacture a huge quantity of barrell staves on
the spot in the wilderness, and then build two flatboats to take them a
downriver metropolis. The boats smashed up and were lost in Memphis Tennesssee,
and according to the story, he wound up in Memphis stark naked, having
lost his clothes being pulled through a small hole in the boat's cabin.
Characteristically, he seems to have told this story on himself for laughs.
He was elected colonel in the local militia, and later sent to the state
legislature, from whence he was sent to Congress to become a national figure.
Cropsey, Jaspar Francis
1823 - 1900:
Landscape painter. His Niagra Falls and Sunset, Lake George
are well known and were placed in the Brooklyn Museum and the New York
Public Library, respectively. Born in Rossville, NY.
Croswell, Edwin (????)
One of Van Buren's Albany Regency.
Editor, from 1823, of the Albany Argus. Called by political enemies
and especially Thurlow Weed, "Miss
Pseudonym for Harriet Beecher Stowe.
Cruikshank, George 1792 -
Cullum, George Washington
1809 - 1892:
West Point Class of 1833. Brigadier General in the Civil War.
Cummins, George David
1822 - 1876:
Withdrew from the American Episcopalian Church and, in 1873, formed the
Reformed Episcopal Church. Born near Smyrna, DE.
Cummins, Maria Susanna
1827 - 1866:
Wrote the hugely popular novel The Lamplighter in 1854. Born in
Currier, Nathaniel 1813 -
Name (as in Currier and Ives), nearly synonymous with early American Lithography.
Issued the first of what became know as the Currier and Ives prints, showing
the ruins from the spectacular 1835 New York fire, in that year. Born in
Roxbury MA, and conducted business in New York City from 1834.
Curry, Jabez Lamar Monroe
Served in the House of Representatives from Georgia from 1857-61, and the
Confederate Congress 1861-63 and part of 64. In the Confederate army from
1864-5. Philanthropist concerned with education, particularly for the freed
slaves. President of Howard University 1865-8.
Curtis, Benjamin Robbins
1809 - 1874:
Associate justice of the Supreme Court from 1851-7. Represented Andrew
Jackson in the latter's impeachment trial. Brother of George Ticknor Curtis.
Born in Watertown, MA. Harvard class of 1829.
Curtis, George Ticknor
1812 - 1894:
Legal scholar and historian, who wrote biographies of Webster and Buchanan.
Born in Watertown, MA. Harvard class of 1832.
Curtis, George William
1824 - 1894:
Wrote for Harper's Magazine and later edited Harper's Weekly
(from 1863). A popular lecturer and essayist. Lived at Brook Farm 1842-3.
Born in Providence, RI.
Cushing, Caleb 1800 - 1879:
In the U.S. House of Representatives from 1835-43. Special ambassador to
China 1843-5, where he negotiated a treaty which opened five Chinese ports
to U.S. trade. Attorney General from 1853-7. Harvard Class of 1817. Born
in Salisbury MA.
Cushing, Luther Stearns
1803 - 1856:
Author of A Manual of Parliamentary Practice (1844), know as
Manual. Harvard class of 1826. Born Lunenburg, MA.
Saunders 1816 - 1876:
Stage actress from 1835-58. In England 1845-9. Toured U.S. 1849-52. Born
Cutter, George Washington
1801 - 1865:
Canadian born poet, author of Buena Vista and Other Poems (1848).
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